Saturday, September 8, 2018

The Doe Family

Everett Doe at the Doe Rexall Drug Store Circa 1917 


The Doe’s were an early merchant family and still remembered in Philipsburg. Although no longer a mercantile and drug store the business housed in their building continues to carry the Doe name. The first comment I found of Doe’s while researching the newspapers was December 19, 1895. 
The members of the May-Pringle combination, who have traveled all through the western country and have played in much larger cities, said they have not anywhere seen a stock of holiday goods or a collection of books equal to the present display at the store of M.E. Doe & Co. As a result they bought their Christmas presents here.
 The next article thanks the Doe’s when they remembered the Mail office New Year’s Day by presenting the staff with a bottle of the celebrated Harper’s whiskey. All the staff could say was thanks, but assured Messrs Doe & Co., that the chemical was not wasted on the drifted snow, according to the January 2, 1896, Mail

Known always as M.E. Doe, Marshall arrived in Philipsburg in 1885 and opened a retail business with J.D. Thomas (brother-in-law) on “upper “Broadway. In 1888 A.E. Dearborn (Pharmacist) was hired to take charge of the pharmaceuticals and prescription department of the M.E. Doe Drug store. They later moved to a more central location according to Marshall’s obituary. The earliest Sandborn Insurance map shows the store at it’s current location in 1889. 

Marshall was Born on April 25, 1856 in Canada. The Doe family moved to Shepardsville, Michigan when he was eight. At the age of twenty three M. E. came to Butte where he engaged in mining; operated a skating rink and then joined a survey party at Anaconda where he worked for two years. He then left for California for one year before showing up at Philipsburg. 

Marshall married Jennie Crable in Los Angeles on July 25, 1895. The couple met in Butte before she attended business school in Los Angeles. Announced in the Philipsburg Mail “On July 7, 1896 a son was born to Mr. and Mrs. M.E. Doe”. This son, Marshall E. Doe Jr, died after suffering a convulsion at the family home on Montgomery Street, April 28, 1899 and was buried in the Philipsburg cemetery. (Current articles date the Doe home as being built in 1902, so they must have already lived on the property prior to building the current structure included in the Philipsburg tour of historic homes.) 

Following the birth of Marshall were three more children: Everett in 1901; Milton in 1908. and a daughter Margaret. In 1910, Doe’s became known as the Rexall Drug Store 
M.E. Doe & Co. are so well and favorably known for their sterling honesty and square dealing that we predict a great success for them with the Rexall Remedies, and they are heartily congratulated in bringing this great and modern business enterprise to Philipsburg.

 In 1917, the cast of the operetta “The Pennant” included Everett as Owen and Margaret as Mrs. Reno Grass. M.E. Doe bought out J.D. Thomas’s, interest February 1, 1918 and in 1921 C.K. Durkee of Glasgow, Montana, accepted a position as pharmacist in the M. E. Doe drug store. 

Everett Doe married Miss Wilda Marie Wetzel, on December 31, 1925, in St. Louis, Mr. Doe had been studying for the past two years in the Pharmacy School, in St. Louis. After a honey moon in Minnesota, the couple made their home in Philipsburg. 

M.E. Doe, died at his home, on October 13, 1928. “Taken ill at work, he was brought home and put to bed, on October 10. He died from bronchial pneumonia and a blood clot in the lung." 

Survivors were: his widow; a daughter Mrs. L.W. (Margaret) Maxson; two sons: Everett, who was associated with the business and Milton, a student in a School of Pharmacy, in St. Louis; his mother, Mrs. James Doe, in Ovid, Michigan and four sisters and three grandchildren. He held membership in the Philipsburg Rotary Club and Granite Camp, Woodsmen of the World. The funeral was held at the family home with Rev. Maris, of the Methodist Church officiating. Services at graveside were conducted by the Woodsmen. 

Milton married Ruth Anderson, at the Doe house on Sunday, May 27, 1934. After a wedding breakfast the couple left for Billings, where they attended a Rexall convention. 

Mrs. Jennie C. Doe, died at her home after being ill for several weeks, on February 19, 1938. 

Everett Doe died at the age of 66, January 5, 1967 in Arcadia, California after an emergency surgery. Everett retired in 1965 after nearly 45 years as the Pharmacist at Doe’s Rexall Drug. Survivors were his wife and daughter Marilyn Lovitt and family. 

 Research has not revealed Milton’s obituary.

City Without Night

In my personal library is a bright orange seven page booklet titled “City Without Night: nothing ever closed; nothing ever stopped in Granite, Montana.” Authored by T.J. Kerttula and available only at “Doe’s Rexall Drug”, the publisher James G. Paul Pharmacist-Owner of Doe’s gives credit to Mr.Kertula (sic), Mary Sanders Editor of True West Magazine and Virginia Hansen of Philipsburg on the back page. This page has a map of the area and tourist attractions such as the Sapphire Mines, East Fork Dam, Seven Gables and Georgetown Lake. 

The booklet contains a number of black and white pictures and etchings of the area and details the beginning of Granite with a few stories describing the residents. Unfortunately there is no publication date, although the author does state he first visited Granite in 1938. The internet gives the publication date as 1988. 

Kerrtula, began with this opening: 
They called Granite the Silver queen but to me she is the City in the Sky. Perched high on an out-jutting ridge of Granite Mountain, she overlooked the broad upper reaches of Flint Creek valley and literally down the chimneys of her sister town, Philipsburg, at the foot of the mountain, some 1500 feet (in elevation) below. At the approach to Philipsburg’s main street one can look up, way way up, and pick out a tan scar high on the mountain. That is the dump of Montana’s fabulous Granite Mountain Mine. Less frequently she was also called the City without Night. The mines operated around the clock and business houses stayed open to accommodate the miners. You could buy a hat as easily at 3am as 3pm. Granite was rich, fabulously rich, as attested by McLure’s records. From 1882 to 1893 she produced some $45 millions in silver before the panic of ’93 reduced her almost to a ghost town…Granite was one of the most pleasant mining camps in which to live. The first workers were lodged in huge boarding houses. Then the Company began leasing building lots for $2.50 and log cabins, frame houses, and business buildings soon spilled down both sides of the ridge. The first business house constructed was a three-story hotel, The Moore House, by H.T. Cumming. It’s first two floors were elaborately finished in hand-carved black walnut. It was as proud of being the first three-story building in the area as it was of its tables, topped with Tennessee marble.
 Excerpts from H.T. Cumming’s Diary show that Hugh leased the already built Moore Hotel some time after he arrived in March of 1889 and did not try buying the Hotel until “9/11/1891 “Bargaining for the Moore Hotel; it costs a lot of money.” 

 Kerrtula continues on describing 
wages were $4.00 a day for the mill-men and $3.00 for the miners. For a dollar a month either could enjoy the company operated bath—reading room located at the Granite Mine. The bath-house contained a 16 x 16’ steam heated plunge and adjoining it was a reading room well stocked with current newspapers and periodicals, some of which were in foreign languages. The Company also operated a small hospital directly downhill from the Mine in what was known as the Sunnyside district. It was probably so named because facing west it received the late afternoon sun for hours after Main Street was in shadow. Five doctors-Dickson, Hall, Schley, Pleasant and Power—practiced in Granite and at times were very busy, but not from the most common disease of boom camps—lead poisoning. In spite of the eighteen saloons, old timers insist that Granite wasn’t any wilder than a town of the same size today. They do hedge a bit with the story of the man who, exhilarated by firewater, ground out the marshal’s eye with his boot heel. Hardly had the town started, in 1884, when black diphtheria struck hard. At least thirty-five children and a large but unknown number of adults, died. Typical, perhaps, is the story of Mrs. John Hickey who came to Granite to live in the first family house constructed there. Of her four children only one survived and during the time her hair turned white. But after the death of her children, Mammo, as Granite affectionately called her, became a familiar sight as she went from home to home helping nurse other sick children.
 Jane O’Neil Hickey is the paternal great-great grandmother of my children. The children who died were Sadie May 17, 1885; Liddie on May 21 and Alice on May 28. Anna Armina (Minnie) age eight months survived when great grandma (Margaret) in desperation stuck her finger down the babies throat and pulled out the diphtheria membrane. 

The big day in Granite was June 13, Miner’s Union Day. 

County Jail Besieged

May of 1895 found how far men from Combination would go for the release of a friend from the county jail. The May 16th Mail carried a three and one half column story detailing the happenings on the previous Saturday morning.
…It was shortly after 10 o’clock when some fifty or seventy-five armed men, with handkerchiefs tied over their faces besieged the county jail and demanded the release of Henry H. McCloskey alias James E. Daily, who had been arrested at Combination by under-sheriff Argall, accompanied by Kisney C. Sterling, a deputy sheriff and detective from El Paso, county, Colorado. After a successful release of the prisoner the group departed for Combination with him. The first intimation that anyone in town had of the contemplated raid was when someone gave jailer Coy a tip that it was to occur. He immediately sent word to Under-sheriff Argall, who went to the jail and after hearing the particulars went out and attempted to raise a posse to stand off the raiders. He started up North Montgomery street to where he thought he could obtain some guns and had hardly got the length of the jail when he almost ran into a crowd of those composing the raiders. He immediately turned and walked rapidly to the corner and down the street and entered various places and deputized a number of citizens as deputy sheriffs. But as not one of them had any firearms they were of little use in this particular case. By this time the crowd of raiders had surrounded the jail and demanded the release of Mr. McCloskey. Jailer Coy, Deputy sheriff Sterling and J. H. Miller were inside with all of the doors locked. When the demand was made for release of the prisoner the three men conferred and kept the crowd waiting outside for ten or fifteen minutes. Finally jailer Coy asked the Colorado man what had better be done in the matter, as the prisoner was his. Mr. Sterling said that the best thing to be done was give the man up, as they were taken at a great disadvantage and three men could hardly expect to accomplish much against such great odds. With this Mr. Coy went to the cell and conducted the prisoner to the door, unlocked and opened it and gave McCloskey up to the men that had come so far to secure his release. When they got what they were after they set up a cheer and started out of town, first firing a volley off in the air, though one gun must have went off prematurely, as it whizzed rather uncomfortably near a man standing near Jacky’s harness store. The crowd started down broadway, one man holding each arm of McCloskey. A picket guard was stationed some distance in the rear and everyone on the street was forbidden to approach too close to the raiders. When they reached the flat between the electric light works and the old Catholic church foundation, some horses were waiting and some of them mounted. Afterwards several express wagons went down Broadway and it is supposed that the men, or part of them, rode to Combination….
 The article went on to describe how well the scheme was planned, such as coming into town in groups of eight men and stationing themselves in key places like the rear of Inkamp’s corner and by the fire-bell, so as to block any posse from being able to assist the jailer in guarding the prisoner. 

McCloskey, had worked for several years at Granite, Combination and other mining camps. About the time of the silver crash he departed for Colorado and went to work at Cripple Creek, where he was elected president of the Miner’s Union. McCloskey was there during the strike and took a prominent role in the activities. He was charged with killing a deputy sheriff and along with several others he broke out of jail in October at Colorado Springs. 

Sterling the detective followed his trail to Utah and then Wyoming. McCloskey got wind that he was being shadowed and took off from Wyoming to Combination in January of 1895. He had quietly worked there until arrested last Saturday. It was also rumored that he was to marry a young lady of Combination in the next few days. 

The article stated Sterling would receive a $1,500 reward when he returned McCloskey to Colorado. After the release of the prisoner the raiders left as quietly as they had arrived and 
it is safe to say not anyone of those taking part is known to any outsider.

The argument for releasing the prisoner: the arrest could not be legal without papers issued from the Montana Governor by request of the Colorado court.

John Schively

Another local Philipsburg resident was intimately involved in the Chief Joseph encounters that occurred during the tribe’s attempt to reach Canada, in 1877. John Shively (sic) born in 1825 came from unknown parts to the west in 1852 according to the Philipsburg Mail February 21, 1889. This account states John was traveling from the Black Hills in Dakota to Philipsburg when he was captured by a party of Chief Joseph’s warriors in Yellowstone Park. The Indians took him prisoner and demanded he guide them through the park. This news article names others taken prisoner a couple of days later after the Indians killed the men in the party, as a Mrs. Dr. Carter, her sister and a daughter. 

An account in Volume IV of the "Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana in 1903" and a condensed version in "Montana Margins" in 1946 describes more of the story from the eyewitness account of Mrs. George F. Cowan. The article is titled “A trip to the National Park in 1877: An account of the Nez Perce raid from a woman’s standpoint-Incidents and accidents." Mrs. Cowan's party consisted of A.J. Arnold, J.A. Oldham, Mr. Dingee (all of Helena), Mr. Charles Mann, Frank and Ida Carpenter, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Cowan and a cook named Myers all from Radersburg, Montana. The group had left for Yellowstone Park on August 6, 1877. 

After many days of sight seeing, the group returned to their main camp on the 23rd of August, where they encountered General Sherman and his troops and were told they may encounter Indians before they left the Park. Sherman described to them the recent Big Hole Battle with Chief Joseph. That same afternoon a man named Shively [sic] called at their camp and told them he was traveling from the Black Hills and was camped about a half mile down the valley. The next morning their camp was surrounded by Indians. They included Chief Joseph who explained they needed to take them to safety. Then forty or so warriors proceeded to move the party out of the Park. For some unknown reason Mr. Cowan was shot at. When his wife tried to care for him an Indian came up and shot him in the head. Mrs. Cowan lost consciousness and when she awoke was on horse back being lead by one of the Indians. She was told her sister was with “Poker Joe” and Mr. Shively [sic] [who had been captured the night before] at another camp and she could see her in the morning. Her brother was being used by the Indians to guide them and was with her party.”
 During the episode an injured soldier was added to the captured group. For some reason, the Indians decided to let Mrs. Cowan, her sister and the injured soldier go free. Mr. Schively gave them directions to Bozeman.. Mr. Schively was retained by the Indians to guide them through the park. The group traveled under dark of the night to keep from being seen by Indians and on the second day found a group of soldiers. In the days following more people caught up with the group, before they reached Bozeman and their families. 

About a week after arriving at her father’s Mrs. Cowan was visited by two men who handed her the Independent where she read this account: COWAN ALIVE--HE IS WITH GENERAL HOWARD’S COMMAND. He was badly wounded but would survive. 

Mrs. Cowan rented a double seated carriage and traveled to meet her husband. On the return trip from the ranch the team became frightened; ran away and threw the occupants and seats out. A passing traveler rode to Fort Ellis and returned with an ambulance to carry Mr. Cowan the remainder of the trip. Mr. Schively escaped after being with the Indians for ten days. 

The February 21, 1889 Mail stated that John escaped from the Indians by “jumping over an embankment during the night and reached Helena after two days and nights of travel without any food except two potatoes and one egg. From there he wrote his old friend John McLean of Philipsburg who informed him in return that the party he had so nobly rescued were safe under his roof to which place Mr. Shively had directed them before they were released from the savage tribe.” This must be referencing the Carter family. 

John was found dead in bed at the Metropolitan on February 16, 1889 by his room¬mate Mr. Wakefield. John had been subject to apoplexy and apparently died during an episode. He was survived by a brother living at Black Pine according to his obituary. The spelling on his tombstone in the Philipsburg Cemetery spells his name as Schively and gives his age as sixty-four years.


Captain John G. McLean

A short article in the Philipsburg Mail, June 27, 1919 announced Captain J.G. McLean’s death at the age of ninety-one on June 26th, 1919. The next week was published “Passing of an Argonaut…Born in 1830 in the town of Fall River, Massachusetts, he (Captain McLean) acquired in his early years the reputation of a skilled mechanical blacksmith. Before attaining his majority an obstacle arose that prevented his marriage with a sweetheart won when both attended a country school. The event culminated in the immediate enlistment in a party of adventurers outfitting in his city for the gold mines in California. Leaving his home in September 1849, he arrived in San Francisco, California, via Nicaragua, March 20, 1850. From there he went to the placer mines in Marysville, (and) established a shop. But the lure of adventure entered. With the abundance of money came no contentment to his mind. In the fall of 1856 he left for Honduras to join the filibuster Walker in the latter’s Nicaraguan campaign. Soon tiring of that he retraced his steps for the coast and ceaseless followed trails leading to mining camps along the Sierra’s. The fall of 1859, found him rocking the gold sand of the bars of the Peace River and prospecting the gulches of the Ominica. He followed the dim game trails through… the Canadian Rockies to the placers of the Cassier and Frazier. The spring of 1860, found him at work on the bedrock in the Elk Creek diggings in Idaho. Thereafter he prospected along the Clearwater and worked at his trade in Boise City and the Loon Creek diggings. It was while wintering the fall of 1863, in a tributary of the Snake that he heard of the discovery of gold at Alder. Despite the severe weather prevailing he at once started for the new Eldorado with saddle animal and pack horse. Being unable to secure good ground he rode away into western Montana to the placers at Bear Gulch in Deer Lodge County. At intervals he followed his trade in Reynolds Gulch and Deer Lodge city. He was horse shoer for the Diamond “R” Wagon Transportation Company while its trains were engaged in hauling merchandise over the Bozeman cut-off from Fort Laramie to the Platte. In 1872, he was with the Baker expedition into the Yellowstone valley and participated in the fight with the Sioux under Crazy Horse, upon the north bank of the river opposite Pryor’s Fork. The following year found him engaged in his trade in the City of Deer Lodge and in the spring of 1876 he came to Philipsburg to reside, as it proved, permanently. Upon the site of his last (blacksmith) shop stands the handsomely constructed building of the Masonic Society. In 1898, he became interested in the placers in Basin Gulch. He purchased a ranch on a tributary of Rock Creek and lived there several years… With a companion blacksmith, McLean returned to Philipsburg, and the two lived together until Landers passed away in 1918. His every want was provided for by Mrs. J.C. Lalor, the daughter of the James H. Mills, former Lieutenant Governor of Montana, during the territorial days. (She) drove from his humble home the shadows of privation and anxiety and prolonged his life well beyond the years allotted man to live.” 

This lengthy tribute failed to mention the following: The New Northwest, August 10, 1877, named forty nine individuals, from the Philipsburg and Granite County area that organized, when the band of Nez Perce Indians, under the leadership of Chief Joseph, were announced to be headed toward Montana. Twenty volunteers, from The Philipsburg Co. B First Battalion, under the command of Captain J.G. McLean, were the only volunteers, actually in contact with the Nez Perce during this incident. The Missoulian, stated that of the fifty-eight armed men who answered the call “only twenty--the Phillipsburg company--were ever at Rawn’s barricade (now known as “Fort Fizzle.”) These twenty volunteers, provided their own gear (muzzle loading Civil War muskets) and rode their own horses to the call for arms, when Chief Joseph was reported crossing the Bitterroot divide. T

The discussion stated: “While the main column of Nez Perces was crossing the trail, the company of volunteers from Phillipsburg, under Captain McLean, marched up to the Indian cavalcade, and actually passed through the heart of the Nez Perces, minus knowledge of them being the Indians they came to annihilate.” The men of Company B, First Battalion, Philipsburg, were: Captain J. McLean, First Lt. J.K. Pardee, J. Arthur, W.T. Allison, Second Lt. D.B. Jenkins, John Caplice, John Duffy, T. Baier, H. Horton, H. Lamb, G. Ternic, A. Lock, T. McKay, S. Lablain, J.H. Price, B.P. Tilden, J.M. Merrill, John Ulery, John Westfall, C.V. Timmons, and T.O’Conner.


Saturday, August 25, 2018

John D. Kennedy



A person known for his sharp business sense, as an entrepreneur and rancher was J.D. Kennedy. He does not attain pioneer status as he came to the area about the time the county was formed. Born, John Douglas Kennedy to Dougald Kennedy and Roselia M. (Enk) Kennedy on December 22, 1863, at Farmington, Wisconsin, he was known as J.D. 

J.D., attended public schools in Polk County, Wisconsin then Saint Paul Business College in Minnesota. His first job was as a purser on a steamer on the Mississippi. He then engaged as a steam thresher in Fargo, North Dakota. J.D. left the threshing business and moved to Montana in 1888. 

The earliest reference found is this comment in the January 18,1894, Philipsburg Mail: “J.D. Kennedy, the contractor has gone east on a visit.” He was licensed as a Stationary Engineer Second Class, December 2, 1889, for Steam Engines and worked in this capacity at Southern Cross, the Wyman Mill on Marshall Creek, Gold Coin, and then Granite and Philipsburg until 1896. 

J.D. then bought a ranch south of Philipsburg on Spring Creek. This ranch was sold to H.A. Featherman on March 29, 1919 for $40,000.00. The family then bought the Boge place just north west of town, south of Duffy’s. J.D. also operated The Philipsburg Transfer Line, with a partner C. F. Scherning and started a stage line between Philipsburg and Harvey Creek District. The major hauling was done between Philipsburg and Quigley during the town’s short life. 

 The September 23, 1898, Mail, stated “J.D. Kennedy received during the week from Chicago several brilliantly cut sapphires. The stones were taken out of his claim on the West Fork of Rock Creek.” Then in the November 11, 1898, Philipsburg Mail was the statement: “J.D. Kennedy is making preparations for departure to Wisconsin, where he will engage in contracting.” 

On November 18, 1898 the official vote count for Sheriff of Granite County was announced with George Metcalf of the Silver Republican Party 678 votes and incumbent Finley J. McDonald of the Daly Democratic Party 672 votes. Next, the December 2, Mail stated F. J. McDonald was contesting the results. Shortly thereafter, the headlines read “George Metcalf is Sheriff.” 

Then the December 30, issue read, “Mr. John D. Kennedy has been appointed Under-Sheriff by Sheriff George Metcalf.” That same paper contained a short comment, “J.D. Kennedy returned from a several weeks visit to his old home in Avery, Wisconsin.” Obviously the appointment to Under-Sheriff had changed his mind about remaining in Wisconsin. 

During the year of 1899, statements appear in January and July that discussed J.D. Kennedy as under-sheriff and announced that “Jack” was now the “possessor of a handsome Cleveland bicycle” and a trotting horse, “…indications appear that he intends to be ahead of the procession and deal out speedy justice.” Then a headline, November 24, 1899, reads “Captured at Last” and the article described how “Under Sheriff J.D. Kennedy was married last Tuesday evening at Omro, Wisconsin to Miss Anna Anderson…Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy are expected here sometime next week, when a lively reception will be tendered them.” The next issue reads “Under Sheriff J.D. Kennedy arrived on Wednesdays train from Wisconsin accompanied by his bride.” 

The June 15, 1900, edition of the Mail, announced: “Twenty eight head of horses were sold to Under-Sheriff J.D. Kennedy from Mr. Wm. Hanson, of Lower Willow Creek--He is leaving for Nome (Alaska).” F.J. McDonald was returned to the office of Sheriff in 1902. 

The next mention of interest in public office was in 1904 when J.D. was nominated by the Republican Party for Sheriff. Headlined on the front page of the Philipsburg Mail ,November 4, was the statement: “What he will do if elected sheriff. J.D. Kennedy, Republican candidate for sheriff, pledges himself, if elected, to give police protection to every citizen of Granite County, the rich and the poor alike. The rancher, the merchant or the private citizen will be assured the same protection as the rich corporation. Mr. Kennedy further pledges that he will employ a deputy only when actually necessary and when he does the people will know that he is earning his salary. He will send him out to patrol the county on horseback when there is nothing to do and make the business of stock rustling less profitable. Mr. Kennedy, when Under-Sheriff did work along this line and he is the only officer in Granite County who ever did.” 

He lost the election to F. J. McDonald, by 161 votes. Nominated again by the Republican Party, for Sheriff in 1906 J.D. won the election against Robert McDonel a Democrat, by 150 votes.                                               
In 1908 the nomination for Sheriff was again J.D. Kennedy. This time he beat David H. Morgan the Democrat by 210 votes. During this election there was a lot of mud slinging and I found where Mr. Morgan previously had worked as the jailer with knowledge of one of his prisoners working under the jail floor as evidenced by his own admission. This lead to a jail break after the following arrest was made. “Sheriff Kennedy returned from Butte Wednesday bringing two boarders for the county jail. They are Sam Gohlson and Frank Turner, charged with stealing four horses from the range in the upper valley known as “Porter ridges”. Two of the animals taken are the property of Sheriff Kennedy, one belongs to the Hickey brothers and one to the Quinlan brothers of upper Rock Creek.” The Anaconda Sheriff Fleming was in Butte and saw a black horse that he knew belonged to Kennedy. When he began questioning why the Sheriff’s horse was in Butte, he found that three men in the Butte jail had horses stabled at Sloan’s livery stable. Fleming telephoned Kennedy and found that the horse had been stolen. The men had forged bill of sales on their person and were turned over to Sheriff Kennedy to be prosecuted in Granite county. 

The next event was on January 17, 1909 when four men, dug a hole through the jail wall. “The fugitives were Clarence Black, Sam Gholson and Frank Lalonde (alias Turner), awaiting trial on charges of horse stealing, and Herbert Porter, serving a jail sentence for stealing an overcoat.” The newspaper detailed how: “Sheriff Kennedy and Under-Sheriff Scott, assisted by friends, started in pursuit as soon as the prisoners were missed, and by the aid of lanterns were able to track them and learn the direction in which they had gone. Two of the men wore high-heeled cowboy boots which left plain imprints in the snow.” The trail went past the electric light plant, down the railroad tracks to Schoonover’s land and into Durfee’s Lane. At about midnight Sheriff Kennedy got on horseback and followed the trail from the slaughter house past Hermanson’s place but by the time he got to the top of the hill such a storm was blowing that all signs of the trail were lost. After searching all the known cabins down Sluice Gulch to the Mungas Mill he returned to the jail and notified surrounding law enforcement of the escape.” 

They again set out searching on Monday morning, to no avail. “Toward evening George Higley, a lad of about 18 years of age, came in from the Crawshaw place in Antelope Basin and notified the sheriff that the four men were hiding there.” Apparently, Sam Gohlson had worked at the Crawshaw place the past fall, so knew the area well and when the four men showed up about 1 p.m. on Sunday afternoon, they found young George there alone. Monday afternoon he [George Higley] could not endure to stay there any more so he made an excuse that he had promised to stay with a neighboring boy that night and would have to go. After promising “hard and faithfully” not to say a word to anyone about their presence he was permitted to leave. He rode straightway to town and told the sheriff. The sheriff left at once with D.A. McLeod and Forest Ranger Harry Morgan, arriving at the area about eleven p.m. that night. They stayed at the Breen ranch until daylight then surrounded the ranch house and: “…called for them to come out. They complied reluctantly and emerged, several of them but partially clad. An inspection of the cabin disclosed a double barrel shotgun loaded and ready to use and two rifles not loaded. One of the guns was lying in one of the bunks apparently between two of the men while they slept. All of the guns belonged to the ranch. A team was procured from the Breen Ranch and the captives were brought to town arriving at the jail about 1 pm.” 

 All the defendants plead not guilty on March 2, 1909, with a trial date set for March 8, 1909. Before the trial, Lalande, Gholson, and Black changed their plea to guilty and were sentenced to three years in Deer Lodge Prison. Porter saw the wisdom of not going to trial over the jail break and plead guilty to stealing the overcoat for a sentence of six months in Deer Lodge. 

The jailbreak created a lot of controversy. A picture in the Tex Crowley collection shows a pseudo hanging of four stuffed figures dangling from nooses attached to the light poles at Broadway and Sansome Street, which was a public response related to the above event.


 In 1911, after his last term as sheriff, J.D. bought the Clawson Brother’s steam threshing machine, from Hall. Frequent mention is made in the newspaper that fall and the ensuing years when the threshing machine came through town. 

J.D. joined the Progressive or Bull Moose Party (instituted by Theodore Roosevelt) in 1912 and became a candidate for Representative in the Montana Legislature. Everyone on the ticket was defeated and he again returned to his business enterprises.
J..D. continued to earn a decent living as an article in the Philipsburg Mail, January 3, 1913, listing paid taxes for 1912 has “J.D. Kennedy $249.93.” 

The August 18, 1916 Mail published an ad “For County Commissioner, J. D. Kennedy .” John F. Shoblom also ran on the Republican ticket. The November 17, 1916 Mail, published the Official Count of Votes Cast on November 7, 1916 as John Kaiser Democrat with 728 and John D. Kennedy Republican with 725 giving Kaiser a plurality of three votes. John again returned to his business enterprises. 

A search through the family papers demonstrates they were very complex and he was an astute business man. Multiple loans, mining interests, oil interests and property deeds are evident and it is apparent that a large amount of property was acquired by making loans to individuals. The loan was secured by property such as lots, homes or mining claims. When the individual did not satisfy the obligation the property was foreclosed on. A record in 1907 showed interest in the following mining claims: “Old Tex, Sheriff, Montana, New Hope and Under Sheriff” all with Florian Winninghoff, W.C. Scott and Paul Scott. The claims are described as Gold, Silver and copper veins. In 1918 J.D. received “The Old Crow” as collateral for a loan with no indication the loan was repaid. 

The names of numerous ranchers are included in his loan papers and a payment schedule meticulously kept of all payments and interest owed. From researching these records it appears that many ranches in the area would not be in operation today if J.D. had not seen fit to assist them in their finances. One page copied from the Clerk and Recorder record in the family documents, lists thirty deeds of property for Anna and J.D. Kennedy . 

 J.D. ran for office again in 1922 as a Republican for Granite County Representative in the State’s Legislature and won. He was re-elected to this position in November 1924 and was Chairman of the Committee on Corporations. In 1926, J.D. was a candidate again on the Republican ticket for Senator to the Montana Legislature from Granite County. He won the General Election against Democrat, John R. Page and served a term of four years. An important document in the family records, is the engraved invitation from Governor of Montana, J. E. Erickson appointing J.D. to the State Reception Committee “on the occasion of the visit of Colonel Charles Lindbergh to Helena, Montana on September 6, 1927.”

Business obviously continued to be productive even while J.D. was serving as a legislator. His 1927 assessed taxes were $407.38, compared to American Gem Mining Syndicate’s assessment of $262.32. 

During the late 1920’s, John was President of the Anaconda Petroleum Corporation. This was composed of Anaconda, Maxville and Philipsburg investors.. It is unknown what happened with the final outcome of this venture. 

 At the end of his first term as State Senator, J.D. was again nominated by the Republican Party for the office of State Senator and lost to John R. Page a Democrat. John then focused all of his energy on his many business ventures. 

J.D. ran for State Senator of the Republican Party again in 1934 and was again defeated by John R. Page: Next was the purchase of the old brewery from John Knoch (previously Kroger’s Brewery) and the capital stock of the corporation was to be 1000 shares “at a par value of $100 each” announced the Philipsburg Mail, February 12, 1936. The President and Director was S.L. Proven of Missoula with other directors being: “J.D. Kennedy of Philipsburg, W.E. Keeley and Thomas O. Collins of Deer Lodge and H.I. Goble of St. Ignatius. Clyde J. Neu of Philipsburg was named secretary-treasurer…They expect to have beer on the market by early spring”. Whether this was a money making venture is not known. J.D. did ultimately own the property. 

 The next major undertaking that J.D. is credited with was the petitioning and development of a stable banking system in Philipsburg. The end result was the Flint Creek Valley Bank. Demonstrating J.D.’s continued financial acumen is the fact that he was still a Director and re-elected President of the bank, just weeks before his death at the family home on March 13, 1949.

All banks were having large problems during the 1920’s and 1930’s and Philipsburg was no exception. In 1921: “…more than one in three of Montana’s banks had closed-a total of 191-and their depositors had lost about $30,000,000 in four years. The banks of the financial centers were so full of money that interest rates had to be cut to get it into circulation….but half of the farmers and ranchers of Montana had gone bankrupt for lack of a little credit. Evidence that local banking, was virtually non-existent by late 1930, is evident in the checkbooks possessed by J.D. One is for the Deer Lodge Bank and the other one is for Montana State Bank in Butte. 

A four page document on legal sized paper is present in the family possessions that was the original petition J.D. circulated to establish a bank. The original petition reads as : Philipsburg, Montana October 26, 1939 To Whom it May Concern: We the undersigned residents of Philipsburg and Granite County, having a high regard for the community in which we live and in which we make our living, feel that it is entitled to and will support the business institutions essential to its progress and well being. We feel a sound and substantial banking institution owned and operated by people interested in the progress and welfare of our community is essential to our well being. We deplore the fact that Granite County with its varied forms of wealth, its numerous assets and its splendid citizens is now entirely without banking facilities. It is our conviction that Granite County can easily support one or more strong banks and we pledge our whole hearted support to any good banks whose owners and operators will establish a bank within our county and who will undertake earnestly to serve the county in a manner which the community has a right to expect consistent with sound banking practices. Signed: H.A. Featherman, Fred Coward, J.C. Penny C. by (??) Wainscott, A.J. Murray, Philipsburg Grocery, Frank Conley, Winninghoff Motors, Safeway Store, ? Hyder, Granada Theatre by F. Horrigan, Geo. Hayworth, A.G. Haverty Contractor, Doe’s Drug Store by M .E .Doe, Chas. L. Everhard, Goody Shop by Mrs. H. Kaiser, Gambles by J. Beretta, Panama Pool Hall by A.D. Stoddard, Economy Grocery, White Front Bar, J.D. Kennedy (rancher),Frank M?, Philipsburg Laundry, Joe J. Gillies (rancher),Kelly’s Variety Store, Sweet Palace, The Corner Bar, Courtney Hotel, Philipsburg Hardware, Huffman Grocery by R. Huffman, City Meat Market, G. Franchino, J.C. Harrah, C.A. Metcalf, ? Edgar (Commissioner), R.D. Metcalf, Jenkins Garage, James Keating for the Banquet CafĂ©, Midget Lunchroom by Addington, Silver Tavern by George McKee, E.T. Irvine, Grogan Robinson Lumber, Allen McKenzie, W.F. Bentz (rancher), A.C. Knight M.D., Vatis Page, R.C. Shaver Jr. DDS, Fan Cole Sullivan, Wilson Funeral Home, F.A. Tinklepaugh, Walter Steber, F. E. McDougal, L.B. Manning, Edison W. Kent Attorney, Doris E. Hoehne, Arthur Taylor, Jake Polich, W. L. Degenhart, C.J. Hansen, C.C. Edwards(rancher), Ralph L. McLeod, Erick V. Johnson (rancher),Edward Rodda (rancher),A. Budel (rancher), J.W. McDonald (rancher),Geo. Sutherland(rancher), Olaf Sandin (rancher), J. and H. Shoblom (ranchers),Henry Wyman (rancher), G.A. Schoonover (rancher), Dad’s Lunch by D. Phillips, Wallace McPhities, Sid Willis (rancher),C.H. Degenhart (rancher), G. Miltenberger, Myrtle Miltenberger, Ed Sanders (farmer),J.C. Yob, Town Grocery by L.M. Wanderer, Peter Mungas, W.E. Metcalf, Frank Waldbillig (rancher), Joe S. Porter, P.W. Merrifield (rancher),K. Hannah (rancher),A.E. Clure (rancher) W.H. McClain, David T. Bowen (rancher), A. S. Webb (rancher), James Foley (rancher). 

All the ranchers designated themselves as ranchers except Ed Sanders states farmer and W.H. McClain did not identify his occupation. 

The April 12, 1940, Philipsburg Mail stated: The new bank is incorporated with capital belonging entirely to local persons and local business concerns, so that any and all profits earned and all advantages and conveniences returned by the new business venture will be enjoyed altogether by the residents and business concerns of the Flint Creek Valley and Granite County. 

An engraved “Year End Message of Thanks and Our report of Condition” dated “at the close of business December 31, 1940.” shows $339,010.13 in Resources and Liabilities and lists the officers as: H.A. Featherman, President, R.D. Metcalf, Vice-president, B.G. Paige, Cashier and Clarence Superneau, Assistant-cashier. The Board of Directors were: H.A. Featherman, R.D. Metcalf, B.G. Paige, John Rodda and J.D. Kennedy. 

 By December 31, 1948, the resources and Liabilities were listed as $1,583,270.89, with the Officers listed as J.D. Kennedy, President, A.J. Murray, Vice-president, BG. Paige, Cashier, Gemma Mazza, Assistant-cashier and W.C. Bowen, Assistant-cashier. The Directors were: J.D. Kennedy, A.J. Murray, E.V. Johnson, J.H. Mellen and B.G. Paige. 

 The above has been renamed Granite Mountain Bank

John W. Duffy

John W. Duffy and Arch Hannah Circa 1916



Michael Duffy, was one of the first ranchers in Flint Creek Valley and suffered a stroke at the young age of fifty-two while plowing his lower ranch. He was found by his friend Dan Morgan and died in his arms according to his obituary in the April 28, 1887 Mail. The Michael Duffy’s had only one child, so the ranch was then the responsibility of John W. and his wife Winifred Duffy. It is unknown exactly when John’s mother Mary moved from the ranch house, but she was living on lower Broadway in Philipsburg when she died at the age of seventy-seven on May 27, 1909. Her funeral service was a Mass at the Catholic Church and then she was laid to rest beside her husband Michael in the Philipsburg Cemetery

John was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on October 9, 1858 to Michael and Mary Duffy, both natives of County Claire, Ireland. Michael arrived in Minnesota in 1846 and was a pioneer in California and Nevada before coming to Montana Territory in 1871 when son John was thirteen years old. The family homesteaded in Township 7 N, Section 11, R. 14 W. of Deer Lodge County located in the Flint Creek Valley just north of Philipsburg where the neighbor ranches at the time of Michael’s death were owned by Henry Boge and Thomas Robotham. 

After Michael’s death, John added to the ranch by a grant from the Northern Pacific Railroad General Land Office that was signed by President Benjamin Harrison and recorded in the Granite County Court House in 1898. John also inherited the Selma Peak Quartz Lode and the Bunker Hill Mine from his parent. He attended a couple of years in the local Philipsburg School then dropped out to assisted his father in running the ranch. John also worked the family mines and for a short time delivered mail between Philipsburg and the town of Cable. 

 In 1877 John was sworn into the Company B, 1st Battalion of Philipsburg, under the command of Captain J.G. McLean, First Lieut. J.K. Pardee and 2nd. Lieut. D.B. Jenkins. He participated in the “Fort Fizzle” episode of the Nez Perce Campaign at Lolo Pass and was detailed in the New Northwest, August 10, 1877. John was one of twenty volunteers in the organized Company. 

The Citizen Call June 14, 1893 stated: J.W. Duffy recorded taking up 200 inches of water at Stuart Creek. Water rights were becoming a very valuable asset as Granite County was portioned off of Deer Lodge County. By 1902 a long running law suit was detailed regarding plaintiff Montana Water, Electric Power and Mining Company and multiple rancher defendant’s including Duffy. A decision was finally found in favor of the plaintiff in October 1905: “Twelve hundred inches is all the water they are obliged to let pass down the creek during irrigation season.” 

 On June 5, 1881 John married Winifred Murphy at the Scott House in Deer Lodge, Montana. Twelve children were born to this marriage. The family sent two sons to World War I. Edward was the second Granite County soldier to receive injuries when he was “struck with a bullet in the face, the missile coming out just behind his ear” according to the details in the Philipsburg Mail, August 23, 1918. Their son Michael was killed on the Western Front, also in August 1918. 

As an active citizen, John W. Duffy was elected for two consecutive six year terms as Granite County Commissioner, beginning in 1903. The March 31, 1905 Mail announced that the District Court of Granite County had appointed “John W. Duffy, Joseph Henderson and Albert Rupp bounty commissioners, whose duty it will be to name not to exceed ten bounty inspectors for the county. This is in conformity with the new bounty law.” In January 1906, as the County Commission Chairman, John appointed a committee of nineteen ranchers “to prepare a statement of facts regarding certain lands, to be described and character of same , which should be eliminated from the forest reserve, and to draft a petition to President Roosevelt asking for relief in the matter.” Basically this issue was over the forest service controlling rangeland in the foothills that the ranchers had been using for grazing under the understanding that since they belonged to the railroad they were exempt from forest service management. The calling of this meeting with speakers from Forest Rangers of both Lewis and Clark and the Bitterroot National Forests disclosed that the Railroad did not have the power to change Forest Reserve boundaries. 

A picture in the Tex Crowley collection shows John a very stout man with a moustache, wearing suspenders holding up his jeans. He is standing in the First State Bank beside Arch Hannah. 


 During John’s second term as County Commissioner the Granite County Courthouse was erected in 1912. After his second term was completed John continued assisting the commissioners on many committees and was a member of the Finance Committee. He also became Alderman of the Third Ward in the Philipsburg City election on April 9, 1920. In this position he was a member of the Finance Committee according to the May 7, 1920 Mail. 

It is unknown, exactly when John decided to sell the ranch and move. Their son Michael was the second of Philipsburg “boys” to pay the supreme sacrifice at the age of twenty-three, on August 4, 1918. Michael was sent to Camp Lewis, on September 24, 1917; was in England for Christmas dinner and in action on the western front by January 1918. The last letter received by the family written July 8 said he had been in the trenches for seventeen days, with hard fighting and hoped to be relieved soon for some much needed rest. “He was somewhat of a fatalist as he told his mother before leaving that if he went to France he did not expect to return home alive.” The obituary of Michael does not describe where the family was living, but when the town had an impromptu parade at the end of the war the parade stopped at homes of the war dead leaving one to assume the Duffy‘s were living in town by 1918. 

Winifred’s obituary states they came into conflict with homesteaders before WWI and “simply closed down, sold out and moved.” The ranch property was broken up with acreage sold to Erick Johnson and John D. Kennedy. Rudy Vollenweider bought the acreage attached to the home and outbuildings. The house that had been erected for the large Duffy family was a Sears and Roebuck Prefabricated Catalogue Order and remains standing at this time. The property is now known as the Kesler Ranch. 

In the early 1920’s the family relocated on Stark Street in Portland, Oregon. Mrs. Duffy continued to live the rest of her life in Portland but John returned to handle business affairs according to an article in the Mail, April 23, 1926. Research revealed numerous other statements in the news that comment about him going to Portland for family matters, such as his daughter Margaret’s death published September 23, 1927, but he always returned to Philipsburg. 

 In March of 1933 Doctors A. C. Knight of Philipsburg and W.J. Thorkleson of Anaconda amputated John’s foot at the ankle, at Dr. Knight’s Hospital. According to the news account John was “chatting with friends a short time after the surgery was performed.” The operation was necessary because of an infection that had started several weeks before. 

 On September 6, 1934 John W. Duffy “…passed away suddenly…about seven thirty o’clock at his home in Philipsburg from a heart attack.” His son Thomas was the only family remaining in Philipsburg and was appointed administrator of the estate. 

 Winifred died at St.Vincent Hospital in Portland, Oregon on December 16, 1943. Survivors were seven children and two grandchildren. Winnifred was fifteen in 1878 when she moved from Minneapolis to Philipsburg. 

The memory of John W. Duffy is preserved in Philipsburg by the bronze plaque on the courthouse wall, dedicated while he was a County Commissioner; the Duffy Hill with the Granite County schools and gymnasium located at it’s base; the Street named Duffy that starts at Broadway and ends at the north side of Duffy Hill; his simple marble headstone in the Philipsburg Cemetery, and a pristine Sharps 1874 Business Rifle. 

Of considerable historical significance is that Joe Duffy (the tenth born child who was living in Portland) was given a Sharps Business Rifle with a leather fringed scabbard when John died. The Sharps, a Model 1874 Business rifle of .45 calibre was shipped from Old Reliable, Bridgeport, Connecticut plant to Nicholas H. Connolly at Philipsburg, Montana Territory on April 23, 1878. John Duffy and three other Philipsburg residents ordered the Sharps rifles through the Connolly Store according to a letter dated October 6, 1878 that was written by J. A. Matthews. The letter is stamped as received at the Sharps Rifle Company on October 21, 1878. This Sharps Business Rifle was given to Janet J. Duffy Martin by her father Joe Duffy. Janet’s spouse sold the Sharps to The Honorable Victor Atiyeh in 1984 while he was serving as Governor of Oregon. Governor Atiyeh sold the gun and leather fringed scabbard to John K. Olson (grandson of J.D. Kennedy) a native of Philipsburg, Montana on August 24, 2003. This rifle, with an unbroken written chain of provenance and owned by only three families, has returned to Montana where it will remain.

Sheriff John H. Cole

House Bill No. 110 “An act creating the county of Granite” was passed in February 1893. Then the legislature appointed the new county officers. Person’s appointed were ones that were active in the Democratic party. The position of Sheriff was given to one of these individuals. 

News articles show John H. Cole, born in Albion, New York as a delegate to the Democratic Convention as early as August 27, 1886. He was educated in Canada and employed by the government Telegraph office, before migrating to Helena and Philipsburg. Early articles written by Philipsburg historian Clara McDonel stated John had served as undersheriff for both Deer Lodge and Missoula County prior to his appointment as Granite County Sheriff. 

Most recently found are these articles in the New Northwest: December 23, 1881, “John H. Cole sent to Salt Lake City to pick up an escaped convict from the State Pen.” and March 24, 1882, “Mr. John H. Cole formerly connected with the U.S. Mil. Tel. (Military Telegraph) and recently holding other positions of official trust, has been appointed Deputy U.S. Marshall for Montana by Marshall Botkin and will headquarter in Missoula.” 

This leads one to believe he served as Deputy U.S. Marshall for a number of years. John was witness to Lee Degenhart’s homestead application in August 1884. He was engaged (according to Bill Hammond) in “damphoolishness” when he graded the hill and used the earth for the streets to construct a road up the gulch behind the Mail building to the Wilson Addition. This would open up a byway for the wagons of the residents of that portion of town who were forced to carry almost everything up the hill “as it is now”, stated the May 31, 1886 Philipsburg Mail. 

 John dissolved his interest in a business with Robert McDonel during the year of 1887. None of the published notices state what type of business they were involved in. John married Mary McDonel (sister of Clara) daughter of Charles and Elizabeth Hammond McDonel on December 28, 1887 (announced in the New Northwest on January 6, 1888). 

In November he had ran with James McDonel, J.T. Bateman, and James Knapp against Josiah Shull for Justice of the Peace, Philipsburg Township, with Shull winning. May 27, 1888 found John involved in developing a racing association and being elected as the permanent secretary with James McDonel chairperson. Lee Degenhart agreed to provide eighty acres under bond for two years to the Philipsburg racing Association for $2,000 and to fence in the ground. This land was flat and located near Schnepel’s farmhouse in close proximity to the “old track.” The fourth of July races were a well attended event in 1888 according to Mail articles. 

John was also secretary of the Democratic Club in Philipsburg that year. By September John was mining with Nick Connolly at the Princeton Mine and shipped at least one carload of ore. In May of 1891 John was secretary for the Citizen’s Committee for Town Nominations. 

When he was appointed Sheriff his wages began at $225.00 a month with the boarding of prisoners and sheriff expenses amounting to about $400 more income a month. By the end of his term John was earning $450 in sheriff wages plus his other expenses. In June of 1893 an addition was built as the family was getting too large for the present quarters. At this time John was also the local correspondent for the Minneapolis Tribune and a member of the Silver Club of the Flint Creek District. 

 In 1894 Cole children, Lizzie (Elizabeth Jane), Mary Elizabeth, Florence and John attended Maude Hammond’s tenth birthday party. So four of their six children were born by that date with Fannie and Cathryn born later. Mary Elizabeth died September 29, 1897 and is buried at the Philipsburg cemetery. 

 John was elected delegate to attend the Democratic Central Committee meeting in August of 1894 at Helena. As stated in earlier articles none of the appointed county officers ran for re-election. 

From December 1898 through January of 1900, John was editor of the Garnet News. He resided at Garnet and visited the family in Philipsburg. March,1901 news articles show the family in Helena and then Great Falls by May. December 13, 1901 John accepted a position with the Intermountain and the family moved from Great Falls to Butte. John later became city editor of the Anaconda Standard and was there for six years. 

He was still active as a Democratic in the 1913 Legislative session. John died at the age of fifty-five from Diabetes July 26, 1915 in Anaconda. Burial was at the Philipsburg cemetery beside his daughter. Wife Mary (1867-1930) and daughter Elizabeth (1888- 1963) are also buried beside him.

Sedition and the Gun Registry WWI

Discussions published recently in the Philipsburg Mail about the Gun Registry in the possession of George Byrd have raised questions. This article has been excerpted from a presentation given by the author at the September 2017 Montana Historical Society Conference titled “Montana, 1917: Time of Trouble, Time of Change” 

The news about World War I roused great fear and people forgot about citizen’s rights such as the First and Second Amendment in our Constitution. An example published in the newspaper Feb.13, 1918, Anaconda Standard-James H. Johnstone refused to pass out Thrift Saving Literature to his students. He was a Quaker. After he received a letter stating “You have until Feb. 10 to leave town” the townspeople at Southern Cross asked for his resignation. He refused and a 17 to 8 vote discharged him. Mr. Johnstone left for Anaconda and then on to Colorado fearing for his life. 

On February 21, 1918 Senate Bill 4- The first gun registration law was approved 72 to 1 in the Montana House and 26-10 in the Montana Senate. Firearms were defined as “any revolver, pistol, shot gun rifle, dagger or sword. The Philipsburg Mail announced that forms were available at the Sheriff’s office and that falsifying data was a misdemeanor and failing to register carried a $50 to $500 fine or ten days to six months in jail or both. $500 in 1918 would be similar to $8,997.23 in 2018. 

There have not been any Register forms found in Granite county but Ted Antonioli found two filled out forms on record in the Missoula County archives. The form was titled Missoula Register of firearms and stated: 
After first being duly sworn on oath deposes and says 1) that he is a citizen of ____________at address___________.2)

That he is the owner (has in his possession or control) the following firearms or weapons:

Manufacturer name_________ Manufacture Number________-Calibre______-where possible date and manufacturer series______.
 These lines were repeated multiple times to list all weapons then at the bottom of the form was the request for the country of birth and personal characteristics that included height, color of skin, hair and eyes. These forms had to be notarized which caused great concern for the two men filling out the forms found in Missoula county. 

Following is a copy of their letters: 
 6/12/18 Corlett, Montana. To the sheriff of Missoula county. Dear Sir: I am sending you the caliber description and numbers of what firearms I own. If it is satisfactory with you I will call at your office the first time I can get to Missoula and be sworn there as there is no notary in the county nearer than Potomac and I am not sure there is one there. I live on a homestead in Swan River Valley and it is impossible for me to leave home at present. Hoping this meets with your approval I am Yours Truly Frank ____.

 He owned two Winchester Rifles; a 20 Gauge Shotgun and a Colt Frontier 44 Pistol. 

 8/12/18, Corlett, Montana, Sheriff of Missoula County, Dear Sir: I will try and fill out my (unreadable) to send in the (unreadable) of my firearms. It is pretty hard to get things as one wants to here in the heart of the county. This is the first opportunity I have had. He owned a 25-35 Winchester (unreadable), 32 Winchester (unreadable), 35 Iver Johnson (unreadable). Signed Royster _____. 

Corlett, Montana was renamed Seeley Lake in late 1918. These men were expected to travel all the way to Missoula to abide by the registry law. 

Granite County had a population of 4,167 in 1920 versus Missoula County with a population of 24,041. The Granite County Sheriff Fred C. Burks, having lived in the county since prior to 1900 working as a miner, then assistant Forest Ranger at Harvey Creek, knew all of his constituents. Because war hysteria caused people to believe America was going to be attacked, the story goes that Burks told everyone he needed the information so he would know who all could help him if the county was attacked. 

There were 1,147 names and businesses entered in alphabetical order in the Granite County Registry and then 69 added later. There also was no country of birth in this register whereas that question was on the Missoula form. Reviewing the names in alphabetical order I realized my grandfather and other ranchers on Rock Creek were missing. I found them in the names filled in later. This leads me to believe that the Sheriff realized who’s information was missing and rode out to the ranches to collect the data. 

The news about World War I roused great fear and people forgot about citizen’s rights. The June 22, 1917, Mail stated the sheriff had arrested 32 men, most whom carried IWW (International Workers of the World) literature. They were fined $50 and given a suspended sentence if they left town immediately. All of the men left town. 

Once the fears had risen to a high level of hysteria the Montana legislature took up the cause. They first passed the Gun Registration and then on March 1, 1918 the Mail stated “Criminal syndicalism and sabotage is a felony and if found guilty the person faces one to five years in prison and fined not less than $200 or more than $1,000. 

The Montana’s Sedition Act, 1918 (House Bill 1) stated “Whenever the United States shall be engaged in war, any person or person who shall utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, violent, scurrilous, contemptuous, slurring or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the constitution of the United States, or the soldiers or sailors of the United States, or the flag of the United States, or the uniform of the army or navy of the United States or shall utter, print, write or publish any language calculated to incite or inflame resistance to any duly constituted Federal or State authority in connection with the prosecution of the War shall be guilty of sedition.” 

The punishment was for each offense by a fixed fine of not less than $500 nor more than $10,000 or by imprisonment in the State Prison for not more than 10 years or by both fine and prison. These laws were not for the protection of the country, they were meant to silence opposition and to enforce social norms upon those considered to be out of bounds. The Council of Defense was made up of appointed, not elected members that consisted of two bankers, one University President, two mercantile executives, one newspaper editor, and one “token” woman. 

The legislature decided that any newspaper that had originally been weekly could not become a daily publication. The State Council organized the hatred and hysteria setting the pattern for creating county and community councils. There ended up being 43 county councils of defense and the larger cities then appointed town councils. 

 Seventy six men and three women were convicted in 1918-1919 in Montana. Forty one men and one woman were sent to the Penitentiary. Thirty eight people were convicted but did not go to prison. They were fined $200 to $12,000. 

There were three people arrested in Granite county. Charles Hohrman (occupation farm hand and butcher) had a rope put around his neck and was led up Sansome Street with a group following to see him hanged. Sheriff Burks took charge and placed him in jail. Nothing was published in the newspaper about his sentence but it is published in the “Montana Sedition Project.” His charge stemmed from stating at the Speckled Trout Mine that officers who graduated from American military schools were no better than dogs; that the government had cut the supply of sugar and cut off supply of booze to the army and said they would send the boys candy and they let a million tons of it rot in storage in New York and that treaties were nothing but scraps of paper and worthless; that we couldn’t believe what we read in the paper, that the press of the U.S. is owned and controlled by Great Britain, that we would have to wait until after the war and get the …” Charles went to prison July 27, 1918 and served ten months with release on April 13, 1919. 


 Edward Olson on October 4, 1918 stated “The war was a rich man’s war. The working men were given the worst of it…”He was brought before the County Council of Defense and jailed. The County Attorney decided after one month that he was insane. His case was dismissed and Edward was sent to Warm Springs. When he was released is not documented. 

 Eugene Petit came into the O.K. Bar in Philipsburg and said “I wish all the boys that are going over would be shot off or drowned and that the Kaiser would get them all and win the war.” On June 10, 1918 the County Council found “no grounds” for his arrest and his case was dismissed. 

On May 3, 2006 Governor Brian Schweitzer signed a Proclamation of Pardon at Helena, Montana for those convicted.

Who was John Long?

 If you were to ask, almost anyone that has lived in Granite county, where the John Long Mountains are they would either point to the mountain range or describe the location. But if you asked them who the mountains were named after the answer would probably be “Don’t know.”

When a local retired Forest Service employee asked me this question, I decided it was time to find out who John M. Long was and why he was so important that a large mountain range was named for him. The first mention found concerning Mr. Long was in the June 23, 1887 Philipsburg Mail, detailing that the Black Pine Mining Company “has succeeded in securing as foreman the services of Mr. John M. Long, an old Comstock miner of wide and varied experience in mines of all kinds. Mr. Long arrived in Philipsburg Tuesday evening, from Butte where he has had charge of several important mines in that vicinity, having just left the foremanship of the Wild Bill to accept that of the Black Pine mining company.” 

By November 24th John was examining the Bowie Group of mines in Butte though still employed by Black Pine. He resigned his position at the Black Pine and Combination Mining Company according to the July 19, 1888 Mail though “it is not the intention of Mr. Long to leave, but to remain in Philipsburg.” 

By March 7, 1889 John had been at Bonita, for the last six months, developing land for a mine and comments continued through out 1889 that he was developing a mine at Harvey Creek. Then in December of 1889 John was in Madison County looking at mines. The Mail on January 21, 1890 stated that James Hammond sold ½ interest in the Florence Lode near Harvey creek to John M. Long.  
By 1891 the Long family was living in Wardner, Idaho where he was working on mines in Shoshone County. He had great hopes for Wardner’s future when the family visited Philipsburg in September of 1892. John testified in a lawsuit at Boise City on January 19, 1892 according to the Anaconda Standard. Also in 1892 the Helena Independent stated that John M. Long an Anaconda Copper man would begin work on his properties on Harvey Creek. He was still a resident of Idaho in April 1894 then in July he was over from Butte with Charles Warren looking at Harvey Creek properties. In April of 1895 he was over from Idaho looking at his mining interests in the Alps Mining District. 

According to the May 23, 1895 Mail John M. Long and Walter McKay bought a ten-stamp gold mill from Elliston and were preparing to move it to their property in the Harvey Creek District. Construction was beginning on a road into the claims and when it was completed they would move the mill. The August 15, 1895 Mail stated that Charles Densmore the well known Philipsburg teamster would soon be hauling the McKay/ Long mill. The next week John was in town detailing how the mill would be hauled. By December of 1895 he was in Anaconda from his properties on Harvey Creek. Often there was mention of his wife and daughter staying at the Rankin Hotel in Anaconda. I failed to find if the mill ever made it to the Harvey Creek property or operated. 

By July 6, 1896 John M. Long and his wife left to superintend one of the big properties in the LeRot group of mines in Rossland Country British Columbia according to the Anaconda Standard. Thomas Long returned from a trip to Rossland in September of 1897 and stated John was superintendent of the Josie one of the best mines in the district which was not producing enough to pay expenses. The last information found was an ad in the Daily Missoulian March 18, 1917: John M. Long was vice president of the Royal Mining Company, selling stock. He was from Spokane and Eastern Trust Company Spokane, Washington. They were expending thousands of dollars to develop the Charcoal Mines and you could buy stocks March 20th to the 24th from Louis K. Church at the Florence Hotel in Missoula. 

The description of the John Long Mountains states “ In Granite County, Montana , a section of the Sapphire Mountains bounded north by the Clark Fork; west and southwest by the valley of Rock Creek; east and southeast by Flint and Trout Creek. Named in memory of John Long. A pioneer miner in these mountains. A trail over which he packed ore bears his name.” 

Why Long, instead of Hammond, McKay, or Opp, all area miners and long time residents? My own opinion: These men and McLure probably packed a lot more ore.

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Sheriff Levi Johnson

 Levi was a deputy sheriff for the newly developed Granite county while John Cole was sheriff. Levi then ran for the office of Sheriff as a republican against incumbent John Cole and Samuel Snyder in 1896. Election results in November were as follows: Cole 180 votes; Johnson 357 votes and Snyder 172 votes. Thus, Levi became the second sheriff of Granite County. 

The term of sheriff was for two years and Levi was involved in many ventures besides filling the office of sheriff. After serving the 2 year term as Sheriff, he did not run for re-election. Levi did run for Sheriff again in 1900 and lost to George Metcalf. 

 As stated in an earlier article, Johnson was involved with George Babcock in the discovery of the Golden Sceptre. With the building of Quigley, Levi constructed a sawmill a short distance up Rock Creek that was put into operation on May 28, 1896. According to “Up the Creek.” written by Darlene Olsen, after the fall of Quigley, Johnson opened a sawmill on 160 acres he bought near the junction of Willow Creek and Rock Creek. Research does not reveal that Levi owned property on this Willow Creek. His ranch was located on Lower Willow Creek where he was operating a sawmill at the time of his death. 

 Levi’s funeral notice in the Philipsburg Mail states that he died at the Conn ranch on Willow Creek and under the headlines “Johnson’s Death Statement” in the March 28, 1902 Mail is the following description: 
The trial of Thomas J. Wilson charged with murdering ex-sheriff Levi C. Johnson in November last, was commenced in the District Court in this city… On the morning of November 27th last, at his saw-mill near the Conn ranch on Willow Creek, Levi C. Johnson was shot and mortally wounded by Thomas J. Wilson, his engineer. Two days later the injuries proved fatal.
 Leading up to the tragedy there was some little misunderstanding concerning a ratchet breast drill that was missing and Johnson accused Wilson of getting away with it. What occurred in the bunk house no one knows as the two men were alone.
 As the trial began the state produced plats of the Johnson saw-mill camp where the shooting occurred and the dying statement of Levi C. Johnson, which follows: November 27, 1901. I, Levi C. Johnson, believing that I am about to die, do now make my declaration to the facts that led up to my receiving the wound of which I am dying. I believe that I cannot recover and that I will die from the effects of the wound from which I am suffering.
 About nine this morning, in the bunk house at the saw-mill on Willow creek, Thomas Wilson, the engineer, was packing his effects preparatory to leaving. He had quit and I had settled with him and paid him off. I went into the bunk house and told him to leave that breast drill that he had taken from my camp at the dam at Georgetown Flats. He said that he would not do it; that he had no breast drill that belonged to me or the company; that the drill he had he had bought from the Missoula Mercantile Company and had paid for it. I told him that I had been informed different. He said that he would take it with him. I said he should not. We had a kind of clinch and he put his hand in his hip pocket and pulled a pistol and fired three or four shots... After the shots were fired I walked out of the bunk house and said to Thompson and some more of the men around there: “Boys, he has killed me, or shot me, or something like that,” when I saw the hole in me… I have now told all that occurred at the bunk house between me and Wilson as near as I can remember and the foregoing statement I solemnly make in the belief that I am about to die from the effects of the wound received at the hands of Thomas Wilson.

 L.C. Johnson Levi died two days later on November 29, 1901, at the Conn ranch at the age of 46. His remains were brought to the Odd fellow’s Hall in Philipsburg where the body was guarded around the clock by the membership. Internment was in the Philipsburg cemetery. Levi’s headstone states he was born on February 4, 1855 but research does not detail his birthplace. 

The jury found Wilson not guilty after Dr. Conyngham testified he had multiple defense wounds which demonstrated he fired in self defense.

Stella and her girls

 On August 22, 1896, in Quigley,  the Rock Creek Record headlines were about the arrest of Stella Gray, “…one of the bedecked and bedizened blondes whose palace was on Paradise Alley, on the northern limits of the city.” The article contained the story of Stella and four young girls: Gail Bound, Laura Kreba, Mary Knox and Frances Svaboda, who were apparently the victims of Stella, the procurer. This article was from a Spokane paper as detective Bringeld and Sheriff Waller, both of Spokane returned by train with the five females who had set up a “house of ill repute” in Quigley after Stella had removed the girls from Spokane. Mary Knox, sixteen and the oldest of the girls was released from the reform school only to be spirited away by Stella via the railroad to Bonita and then they traveled the 9 miles up the road to Quigley. Gail showed the deputies a picture she had of a young man in Quigley that she was quite enamored with and the paper commented they were sure he was not pleased with her showing his picture around, as he was a prominent business man of the city. 

Interviewed in their jail cell in Spokane the writer stated “The girls are of tender age, but it is evident they are ‘old in vice.’” As soon as they were used as witnesses against Stella and set free they were returning to Quigley, according to the reporter.

The Rock Creek Record (September 26, 1896) stated Ole Anderson, arrested for aiding and abetting Stella Gray was tried in Spokane and sentenced to one year in the penitentiary. Stella was out on bail and had returned to Quigley. When interviewed Stella stated she had no idea why Ole had pleaded guilty to such a charge and felt certain she would be found innocent when her trial was called some time in the next month, at Spokane. 

 When Stella was called to trial she failed to appear and forfeited her bond of $750 cash and $250 surety. Washington state paid the young girls, (for their time and restraint in jail as witnesses) the following: Laura Kreba $50.00, Francis Svaboda $30.00, Gail Bound $11.00 and Mary Knox $60.00. Mary received the most as she was held in jail the entire time due to her inability to post bond. 

The Philipsburg Mail on December 31, 1896 carried the following Summons: John Yank, Plaintiff versus Stella Gray, Defendant The State of Montana sends greetings to the above named defendant. You are hereby summoned to answer the complaint in this action which is filed in the office of the clerk of this court, a copy of which is herewith served upon you, and to file your answer and serve a copy thereof upon the plaintiffs attorney within twenty days after the service of this summons, exclusive of the date of service… The said action is brought to recover of you, the said defendant, the sum of three hundred dollars, alleged to be due and owing by you to plaintiff upon a promissory note, dated August 26, A.D. 1896 and payable on or before November 26, A.D. 1896, and to obtain a decree of foreclosure of the mortgage given to secure the said note upon Lot No. twenty-five [25] in Block No. six [6], Town-site of Quigley, county of Granite, state of Montana, and also, the following described personal property: four [4] sofas, two [2] rocking chairs, four [4] upholstered chairs, one [1] piano, one [1] parlor stove, one [1] center table, six [6] lamps, four [4] bedsteads, four [4] bureaus, four [4] wash stands, four [4] chamber sets, four [4] rocking chairs, four [4] cane seated chairs, four [4] mattresses, four [4] bedsprings, six [6] carpets, also all bedding, bed clothes, chamber and cooking utensils and other furniture whatsoever contained in the house described in said mortgage; and also to recover of you the further sum of one hundred [$100] dollars, alleged to be a reasonable attorney fee for foreclosing the said mortgage and costs; and also to recover of you the further sum of one hundred and two and 87-100 [$102.87] dollars, alleged to be due and owing by you to plaintiff upon a promissory note, dated September 22, A.D. 1896, payable one [1] day after this date, with interest in the rate of one [1] percent, and for cost of suit, which said last above mentioned promissory note is set out in plaintiffs second cause of action in the complaint filed herein. witnessed with the seal of Court this 21st day of December, A.D. 1896, Josiah Shull, Clerk; John W. Cotter, Attorney for Plaintiff. 

 Research fails to reveal any collection of Stella’s debt or of her continued business in Quigley.

The Murder of Yank

 The June, 1896 headlines in the Philipsburg Mail, Quigley Times and Rock Creek Record were the murder of “Yank’ the Chinese laundryman. Yank, whose real name was Sam Hank had been a resident of Granite county for a number of years before he located in Quigley. He first lived with Ed Moore and although received threats from some in the community was left to his work. Also the threat of Ed Moore using his Winchester on anyone that bothered Yank helped keep him safe.

Some time after the threats Yank bought a lot in the Quigley town-site and erected a small one room building to ply his trade in. He was found on June 1st by two carpenters who had heard a muffled shot during the night but did not investigate it. These same carpenters went over to Yank’s the next morning and found him dead. Yank had a bullet wound in the top of his head and was partially clothed on the floor. A half full can of coal oil was found about one hundred feet from the building. Three corners of the building were soaked with coal oil (Kerosene), causing the assumption that Yank surprised someone intent on burning down his building. 

Justice E. L. Proebsting was to conduct the investigation according to the Times. Yanks body was taken to Bonita on Wednesday morning by Charles Dinsmore and transferred to the express company for transport to Philipsburg where he was turned over to his “celestial brethen” for burial. 

The final supposition was who ever did the deed, had planned on soaking the corners of the building with coal oil and setting it on fire. This would cause Yank to run out the front door and leave town. Bur apparently, Yank heard the men and grabbed his Bull-gun and started outside to see what was going on. 

 Because of the feelings about the Chinese during this time period, I was unable to deduce much more about the investigation of his murder except that Sheriff Levi Johnson and Judge Nicholas Connolly traveled to Drummond the next week to hear the coroners report and Judge E.L. Proebsting had resigned his position that same week according to the Quigley Times

 Information available states that Sam was threatened several times while living in Golden before he decided to set up his business in Quigley. He was survived by a brother in Deer Lodge and another in San Francisco. They were both members of the Chinese Six Companies according to the June 5, 1896 Quigley Times. 

The only other references regarding Chinese and probably referring to Yank was a short excerpt from The Missoula Evening Republic published in the June 5, 1896 Mail: Chinese are a nuisance in a community, and if by peaceful means they can be driven out, it is a proper thing to do. Murder and arson, however, are none the less criminal when a celestial is a victim. The guilty men in the Quigley affair deserve vigilante justice. 

The following resolution was published on June 6, 1896 in the Rock Creek Record: Whereas, It having come to our knowledge that a Chinaman, known by the name “Yank”, who was conducting a laundry in Quigley, was foully murdered some time during the night of May 31, 1896; and Whereas, we have heard, with deep regret, it rumored that this union was in some manner responsible for his being killed; therefore be it Resolved, By Quigley Union No. 6696, American Federation of Labor, in special meeting assembled, that we denounce the rumor as false. Resolved, That while this union, desiring to rid the camp of “scab” labor, does not believe in underhanded work; and denounces the murder as the work of a coward. Resolved, That this union is willing, nay anxious, to cooperate with the authorities in ferreting out the cowardly assassin, and will give said authorities all the aid in its power in furthering the ends of justice. Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of this union, and a copy be handed to the Anaconda Standard, Missoula Missoulian and Rock Creek Record, with a request that the same be published. Signed Committee on Resolutions. 

 Sadly, research does not produce any further comment about Sam’s murder. The resolute continued working in Granite county. In 1901 there were the following licensed for business in Philipsburg: Woo Hee (Laundry), Wah Lee (Restaurant), Woo Kee (Merchandise), Yick Sing Lung (Merchandise), Quong Lee (Laundry), Yuen Lee (Peddler), Wing Wah (Laundry), Sing Chung (Restaurant) and Tom Sing (Restaurant). The Philipsburg Mail, July 15, 1932, stated Tom Yen, who died July 14th was the last Chinese to live in Philipsburg. 

The Granite County Historical Society has marked the Chinese section of the Philipsburg Cemetery.