Wednesday, October 18, 2017

The Pioneering Hynes Family

 A prominent miner, businessman and rancher of Granite county was Thomas Hynes. Born in County Galway, Ireland, Tom came to America as a small boy and the family located in Kentucky, then moved to California during the gold rush. Tom arrived in Montana during 1864 or 1865 and mined at Cedar Creek. His next move was to Cable and then Philipsburg where he built Hynes Hall in 1867. (I am not certain if the Hynes Hotel [House] ended up located in the same building. The Hynes Hotel is drawn on the Sanborn Insurance maps beginning in 1889 and located in the third building on the North side of Broadway immediately west of the James Stuart/Hope Mill site.) 

 The Hynes House was built as a boarding house in 1880 and was operated by Honora Hynes (Tom’s sister-in-law) until the silver crash in 1893. This building was bought and renamed the McGurk House sometime after 1893 and rooms were rented there until 1930. Honora died at the age of eighty July 13, 1911 and is buried at the Philipsburg cemetery. 

Mining property acquired by Tom is evidenced in the newspapers such as the sale of claims owned by Tom, John Whiting and William Burke to the Gold Coin on July 25, 1895. The actual sum of the sale was not published in the P’Burg Mail article. During the probating of Tom’s will at least three city lots were auctioned at Sheriff sales from claims by the Merchant and Miner’s bank. Numerous mining claims were taken over by his nephew Thomas F. Hynes. 

The Citizens Call newspaper stated Tom died at his ranch two miles south of town after being ill only a few hours on September 29, 1895. He was 63 according to his obituary but 64 according to his headstone. Survivors were nieces, Mrs. George H. Hancock, Mrs. Ed Moore and Miss Katie Hynes and nephews: Thomas F. Hynes and William P. Hynes. Nephew Thomas F. Hynes applied for letter of administration in the estate of Thomas Hynes according to the October 23, 1895 Philipsburg Mail

Thomas F. Hynes arrived in Philipsburg in 1877 from Louisville, Kentucky. Born to Peter and Honora (Fahey) Hynes, Tom was the oldest of seven children. Mother Honora and at least three siblings also moved to Montana. Tom’s bride to be Annie M. Schwartz (1859-1938) arrived from Louisville early in 1878. Their marriage took place on October 15, 1878. 

For the first six years Tom worked in the mines around Philipsburg then took up mining on his own and accumulated a number of very good claims. They also owned a ranch one and a half miles south of Philipsburg. To this marriage was born twelve children: Mary, Louise, Kate, Nora, Emma, Alice, Julia, William Bryan, Virginia (1892), Thomas (1882-1883) and Elnore (1880-1881) (research does not reveal any record of the twelfth child). There is a grave without a headstone for Henora Hynes in Block 19 Lot 40 grave 8, next to Baby Thomas, that may be the twelfth child. 

Thomas F. Hynes foreclosed on a $54,225.00 mortgage of the Puritan Mining Company December 21, 1894 according to the New Northwest, so obviously he was extending credit to major mining companies. He ran as an Independent for County Assessor in 1898 against J.K. Wells the Democrat and lost the race. Tom’s name was not on the ballot and instead of having the voter’s write in his name they were provided with “pasters” that had his name printed on them. The poll counters refused to count at least 125 “pasters” with the vote being 414 to 462. Tom contested the election results but did not win the office. 

In 1900 he again ran for Assessor under the Federalist Party against Democrat T. L. Penrose and received a plurality or 151 votes. His pay was $300 a month according to wages published in 1901. As Assessor, Tom raised the county taxes which included more than $700,000 increase to the BiMetallic Mining Company. The Company took their complaint about the increase to the County Commissioners and they excused the BiMetallic from paying the excess. This caused Tom to take the case to the State Board of Equalization. The Board decided they had no authority to change the figures of the County Board (August 20, 1901). 

The City named Tom as Patrolman in June of 1901 and during the next few years news reports show him continuing to do improvements on numerous mining claims. They left the ranch and moved into Philipsburg where, after several months of illness, Tom died on March 2, 1913 at the age of fifty-seven. Survivors were: Annie, son Bryan and eight daughters, three sisters and nephew W.P. Hynes of Granite. 

Mining seemed to be the basis for the early income of the Hynes family in Granite County, but it is difficult to determine exactly which member of the family owned the individual claims. Newspaper articles detail where Thomas F. Hynes did his share of improvements and advertised this to co-owners of The HIRD Lode and the Sam Quartz Lode (1888), and his co-owner of the claim in Stony on the Katie Lode did the same back to Thomas (1896). The San Francisco Company was working two claims that had been bonded to them by Eli Holland, James Patten and Thomas Hynes in October 1886. Also Thomas Hynes was co-owner with John Ulery and Caplice of the Sam Quartz Lode in January 1889. Thomas was improving the Skykill Lode in January 1889. Thomas made application for patent on the Sultana Lode with Eli Holland and Herman Kaiser and they sold the claim to Granite Mountain Mining Company for $3,000 on February 1, 1889. Thomas F. and Honorian (sic) Hynes made patent application for the Piano Lode on September 27, 1888 and sold that claim to GMMC for $5,000 on February 7, 1889. 

A lengthy account was published in The Helena Weekly Herald on July 28, 1887 titled “The Philipsburg affair” that detailed a story by F. L. Currie. Mr. Currie had until a few days prior been the superintendent of the North Granite Mining Company. Mr. Currie had chose to leave town after a mob requested he do so. The article alluded that even a strangulation had occurred but Mr. Currie said he had not witnessed that. The discontent arose over accounts of various claim jumping projects in which the community considered Mr. Currie involved. Mr. Currie wished to make his side of the story known. "In 1883 Thomas F. Hynes located the Katy Lode. A bond was given on it to Lewis Demars but expired in 1894 without being taken up. In April 1885, Hynes and his wife deeded the Katy Lode to the former’s mother, Mrs. Honora Hynes for $1,000 and the title thereby passed to her. In October 1886, Thomas Hynes and his wife gave Phil M. Saunders a bond on the property for $50,000 under which a company was formed and $8,000 worth of development work was put upon the property. I was superintendent of the NGMC and found out the above conditions of affairs viz: that Hynes and his wife had given Saunders a bond for property not owned by them, and that the claim was open to jumping. I explained the situation to Joe Sorenson and he relocated the claim under the name of The Parrot Lode, agreeing to transfer it to the company for a small consideration…There had been various rumors previous to this about my being interested with Lewis Demars and Samuel Tolman in the jumping of the Granite Belle, The Young American and the Nelson Properties. These claims were without foundation. I was allowed to suffer a never-to-be-forgotten indignity at the hands of men who personally were my enemies, regardless of jumping causes.”

In 1890 there were two lawsuits set for trial: One Maroney vs Hynes and the other Charles Clark vs Hynes. Research did not reveal the outcome of either trial. Then the October 6, 1894 Mail posted notice of an auction of “The Old Hynes Hall” and that a daughter was born to Thomas Hynes. The newspapers carry few articles about the Hynes family after Thomas was appointed City patrolman, other than marriage notices of the daughters and Bryan. 

Then Bryan’s wife Hazel died in December 1928 and four days after her funeral Beth Smith died of meningitis at grandmother Annie Hynes house. Bryan was working as an electrician in 1923 when he married Hazel Stella Cutler. They had a daughter, Mary Catherine (1928-1980). Five months after the birth, Hazel died of Flu-pneumonia at the age of twenty-eight. Hazel was survived by Bryan, Mary Catherine and her parents. Her father was engineer for the Drummond Branch of the Northern Pacific Railroad. 

Bryan was engineer for the Algonquin mine when the May 28, 1937 Mail stated “Emma V. McCarthy of Fargo, North Dakota announces her daughter Mary Ellen married (William) Bryan Hynes on August 27, 1934.” The late announcement was because Mary’s teaching job had not allowed teacher’s to be married. 

Mary and Bryan had a son Thomas D. (1939-1995) and a son William (1940- 1941). Bryan was elected Granite County Sheriff in 1942 and served the citizen until 1952 with Nick Munis as Under-sheriff. 

 Bryan died in the Granite County Nursing Home on November 22, 1980. Mary (my seventh grade teacher) died in 1989. This concludes another important Granite County family history.

From Mining Camp to Town

Sporadic work in the mines and mills caused hardship for the residents and businesses of Philipsburg and a flux in population, but it did not stop the camp from becoming a town. Previous articles have discussed the huge drop in population in 1870. My theory is that once the James Stuart Mill became the Hope and the Stuart, Dance and Company stores were no longer the major mercantile in the camp, it was no longer a “Company Town.” Granted the BiMetallic Mine and Mill frequently was the only work in town during a number of sparse periods, so was a contributor in keeping the population present, but I think the existence depended greatly on the stability of the ranchers. Businesses knew that they needed to extend credit to the ranchers, but were almost guaranteed, come fall all the credit would come off the books. Flood irrigation was the only option during that period and water rights were sacred and used judiciously. Research does not reveal any season where there were not adequate hay crops in this fertile valley and once the agriculture began moving into planted crops, most seasons were bumper yields. This view is also expressed in the sociological fiction titled “Small Town Stuff”, written by Albert Bluementhal (1932). 

After watching the mining camp survive for 20 more years, politically active citizens of Philipsburg wrote articles of incorporation in October of 1890. Elections were held the first week of November and a positive vote formally declared Philipsburg was now a town. The town’s first mayor was pioneer James McDonel, known to his friends as “Uncle Jim.” Serving with the Mayor were: Messrs. Charles Kroger, (?) Smith, W. T. Allison, Angus McIntyre, Frederick Bowen and C. F. Jacky. Research does not reveal an election so there must have been a town meeting with an election. The Anaconda Standard stated “Philipsburg Board of Aldermen had their first meeting tonight. Mayor McDonel and every member was present and they proceeded to transact business with the precision and depth of veterans.” This meeting is where Town Marshall David Laughrin was appointed and a ballot was taken between J.C. Bateman and Nicholas H. Connolly for appointment as Police Magistrate. Judge Connolly won the vote. Next the Committee on Ways and Means reported that a tax of three mills was to be levied to raise the necessary money to run the town. By April 30, 1891 the Town Ordinances were published in the Philipsburg Mail and by May 12, 1891 an election notice was published and new members nominated by a Citizen’s Convention. The election date was set for May 16th and the election results published were: Mayor- James McDonel; First ward-Charles Kroger and William Weinstein; Second ward- Angus McIntyre and John Rains; Third Ward- Frederick Bowen and Frank J. Wilson. Police magistrate: Nicholas H. Connolly; Town Marshall: David Laughrin; Policeman: John Elkins; Street Commissioner: George W. White; Health officer: Dr. William Ray and Fire Marshall: Frank D. Brown. There were no vote tallies published, only the names and the length of terms. David Laughrin had previously been a policeman in Anaconda and John Elkin served as Constable of Garnet after his service to Philipsburg.

The first Mayoral report published on July 2, 1891 gave thanks to the Council members that had served and for the year of ordinance development. Being new to politics it did not take long for problems to arise. August 13, 1891 Alderman Weinstein presented a petition to the Town Council meeting signed by a number of citizens preferring charges and asking for the removal of Town Marshall David Laughrin. The same meeting David was paid $100 for his monthly salary. The article did not state any reason for the petition. 

The September 10, 1891 P’Burg Mail carried this headline: “The Town Father’s: Full minutes of several meetings-they exonerate the Marshall. They reconsider their actions of a previous meeting and find him not guilty.” The article detailed how during several day and evening meetings the Aldermen had removed David Laughrin from his office of Marshall. The Mayor refused to approve this action as evidence did not justify the verdict. The Aldermen then considered charges against officer Elkins. In executive session they returned a unanimous decision of acquittal, fully exonerating the officer and severely censuring any recommendation of charges founded on such frivolous basis. The original charges: illegal arrest, conspiracy and retaining money of a prisoner (who was intoxicated.) All such matters hereafter were to be handled by the police committee. Marshal Laughrin was exonerated from all charges.


Following is the history of the first Mayor and two of the aldermen. Jim McDonel (1843-1927) was raised on his father’s farm in Wisconsin. In 1864 he left home and worked for a company that crossed the plains by mule teams to Nevada. Jim worked with friends in Nevada about nine months and then set out for Montana, arriving at Virginia City in the spring of 1865. After working in Blackfoot City, Jefferson City, and Carpenter’s Bar, Jim settled near Gold Creek. With two partners he built a $2,000.00 bridge and set up a toll service to cross the stream now known as the Clark’s Fork River. The first five weeks of business netted $1,500 in toll fees. James bought out his partners after five years and continued to operate the toll service for two more years. Next he opened a livery stable in Pioneer and ran that for six years. In 1879 he sold that stable and moved to Philipsburg where he engaged in operating another livery stable for five more years. James then moved to Granite where he platted the town, sold town lots and erected the first business house in Granite. Poor health caused Jim to move back down the hill to Philipsburg where he operated a saloon for six months, then went into real estate and ranching. Jim served four years as constable of Philipsburg before it was incorporated. He also served two terms as Justice of the Peace. 

After serving two terms as the town’s mayor, Jim was elected as a Deer Lodge County Representative to the State’s Legislature. During his term in 1893, Jim presented House Bill No. 110, which created Granite County. He ran for Granite County Commissioner in November 1896 and won, but the election was deemed invalid by the State of Montana. The original 1893 County creation law had designated October 1898 as the first election date. He was then elected in 1898 as County Commissioner and served one term. James died at the age of eighty-four on November 18, 1927 at his niece Clara McDonel’s house. Survivors were: Nieces Clara (Philipsburg)and Mrs. John (Mary) Cole (Anaconda) and Nephew Robert McDonel (Philipsburg). He is buried in the Philipsburg Cemetery. 

William Weinstein came to the United States from Poland in 1855. He lived in Leavenworth, Kansas then migrated west until arriving in Montana in 1865. His first business venture was a small store at Cable. He moved this store to Philipsburg in 1867 and it became one of the largest in the state located at 210 E. Broadway. He is credited with opening one of the first general merchandise stores in Granite in 1885. He also ran a small store in Corvallis with a partner named Block for a short time. When the Algonquin Mine shut down in 1882, William secured a judgment for about $8,000. He was Vice-President of the Merchant and Miner’s Bank at that same time. As stated previously, William was elected Alderman of Philipsburg in 1891. 

Sadly on July 2, 1893 William was injured when his horse and buckboard were involved in a run-a-way. William had invited John Foley to ride with him down the hill from Granite. John tied his saddle horse behind the wagon and the two started down the hill. Just below the BiMetallic the horse started to run away. William got him under control, then shortly after the horse broke out in full speed. Foley jumped from the wagon and his saddle horse broke free. William was carried with the run-a-way horse and wagon down near the Roadhouse where there was a rut in the road. When the wagon hit the rut William was thrown in such a manner that his head was either struck by the horses hoof or the wheel. He was picked up and taken into the Roadhouse and examined by Dr. Heine. Deeming the scalp injury not severe enough to be life threatening, although he remained unconscious, he was placed in a wagon to take him home. William died on the trip to the family residence. 

A large contingent of The Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows escorted his body from the family residence after the funeral to the train. He was buried in Helena after the performance of Jewish Rites. 

John Rains was born in Norway and immigrated to the United States in 1849. He lived in California until moving to the Philipsburg area in 1863. He married a sister of A.H. Porter. Her initials were H.E. which is on the tombstones of their children Minnie and Johnnie. This marriage produced seven children. The only living child (daughter age 6) was with the George Brown family in Anaconda when John died suddenly on February 20 1896 at Golden. She inherited a large estate. 


John was originally in a partnership with Joseph Daddow in a livery and stagecoach business that ran routes between Pioneer and Deer Lodge until he sold out his interest in 1874. John Rains’ name is signed in ads in the New Northwest during 1874 as Director of Montana State Prison, where they were asking for bids on various supplies and services. He was in Philipsburg dealing in Dry Good by 1885 and running a saloon by 1887. May 19, 1887 the ‘Mail announced that John had adopted Carrie Simpson and his wife was in Granite the same day and adopted a young boy. “So that stacking on up that night, Mr. Rains and wife found themselves the happy possessors of two adopted children.” Their son Johnnie died at 5 months of age in January 1884 and daughter Minnie died at the age of 7 months in January 1885. 

In July of 1887 Rains sold his house on Stockton and was building a brick home in the Wilson Addition. Health Officer James Carten made a complaint against John Rains and H.L. Turner for dumping refuse matter in the alley in the rear of John Rains saloon in July of 1887. The jury acquitted Rains and the judge fined Turner $10. O’Mara and Maloney took over Rains saloon in August 1887. John was elected an alternate to the Republican Convention in May 1888. 

Hannah Porter (mother of Mrs. John Rains) died July 5, 1888. James Reynolds sold his saloon to Rains in December of 1889. Frequent ads are in the Philipsburg Mail during 1889 for horses for sale. He was involved with J.B. Risque, James Patten, A.S. Huffman, E.C. Freyschlag, Joseph Hyde and W.W. Adams in the Bell Flower, Viola, Pyrennes and other claims located near Black Pine in November 1889. Archie and Annie (Porter) McPhail moved to the Rain’s ranch south of Philipsburg after their wedding November 1890. 

During hunting season in 1893 the ‘Mail carried ads “No hunting or killing of game on the John Rains Ranch.” Also in 1893 the paper carried frequent references to the John Rains building. In 1894 John patented the Silver Eagle Lode with James McDonel and A.A. McDonald. 

John was the administrator of his father-in-law, George W. Porter’s estate in December 1895. A.A. McDonald bought 10 feet of Rains property so he could build the Opera House Theater “deeper” in 1896. John co-owned the United Quartz lode with Vernon Curtis at the time of his death and was still involved in the Golden Sceptre Company with C. H. Eshbaugh and H. Copely when the estate was being settled. 

Of major interest is the fact, as Alderman, John resigned his chairmanship of the Streets and Alley Committee on August 13, 1891. Then on August 27th this Committee’s Report was brought forth, read and adopted by the City Council. The following report was signed by John Rains, F. J. Wilson and Charles Kroger: “Gentlemen:..matters relating to the placement of a flume through the town of Philipsburg, have carefully examined all subject matters pertinent thereto and would respectfully submit: First—We find that the cost of a flume…would be per foot, 57 cents…the extreme cost for laying this flume should not exceed $1.25 per running foot…I would advise that the flume be laid so as to constitute a sidewalk along the north side of the alley south of Broadway, from the east to the west end of town, commencing…where it joins the Hope Mill site and ending in any suitable place in Pardee & McDonald’s addition on Camp Creek…From a sanitary point of view it is absolutely necessary. Its present condition is not only a menace to the health of our people, but an eyesore and disgrace to our town. A brick sewer costing $4 per foot can also be built.” A synopsis of the continued report concerning the nuisances reported by the Chairman of the Board of Health stated “the privy in the rear of the Capital saloon (Hyde was owner) while in a filthy condition is so arranged as to be almost incapable of being removed.” The rear of the Hynes Hotel mess was not the tenant’s fault. The ground was so saturated with the drippings of manure that the smell would stay even if more soil was removed. Assess Mrs. Hynes the bill for the Street Crew soil removal and applying lime. The Committee did not recommend a title system sewer in the Camp Creek flume. So goes the business of moving from Mining Camp to an incorporated town many years later. 

Looking at the beautiful little creek bubbling its way in front of the Pioneer apartments one would never believe it was once used as the city sewer.

Sunday, August 27, 2017

People living in Philipsburg in 1870

The U.S. Federal Census of 1870 affirmed the population in Philipsburg was less than robust. The month and day of the census taken by Wm. W. Jones is left blank and he numbers 195 residences in the town. At the time Jones made his tally there were only 30 people interviewed. In contrast there were 137 people living in 81 residences in Emmetsburg, with 24 buildings vacant. Cable had a large population with 250 men, women and children. This number included 68 Chinamen and 7 Chinese women. There were 46 residences vacant the day (unrecorded) the census was taken. While thinking about this data I decided to determine who the 30 residents in Philipsburg were and if their families remained in the area. The first person registered had a name that was hard to decipher. Fortunately, when I researched the resident living in the second dwelling, somehow it was recorded with the first family and allowed me to determine the correct spelling. A name that looked like Conn, Cunn, or Carin was recorded as Caven. His first name was Jeheil or Jehiel. At the time of the census he was 40 years old with an occupation of Toll House Keeper. Mr. Caven was born in Ohio and gave his personal wealth at $600. He was married to Flora age 24 whose birth place was England and they had three children all born in Montana Territory: Kate age six, Thomas F. Meagher (honoring the Territorial Governor) age three and Maude one year of age. Caven was in Wayne, Ohio and single in the 1850 census, but no other census years disclose Jeheil (Jehiel) Caven, spouse Flora or the children. There are no records in the Philipsburg or Valley cemetery with the name of Caven. The resident living in dwelling number two was Hugh Bell. He was born “on the sea”. His age was 27 and occupation was Druggist. “Find a grave” has a record of a Hugh Bell born in 1843 and died in 1934 at Eau Claire, Wisconsin with burial at Lake View Cemetery. An obituary has not been found for Hugh. Henry Inkamp was living in the 18th residence. Born in Prussia, occupation saloon keeper, He was 37 with a monetary worth of $1,700. In the 1880 census Henry is still in Philipsburg working as a saloon keeper and married to Caroline aged 24. They have a one month old baby girl named Lilla. Henry arrived in Philipsburg in 1867 probably from California. The Pioneer Association records state he arrived there in 1856. Henry built the Inkamp building in 1887 in what was referred to as a business block. While researching Book One of “Mettle of Granite County”, I found where that block in 1892, included a Gentlemen’s Clothing Store, a Grocery store, a Grocery and Fruit Market, A Tailors Shop, Doctor Offices, Printing Office, Utility Office and Post Office. Reviewing Sanborn Insurance maps of 1890 this could be referring to the block on the north side of Broadway between Montgomery and Sansome. Newspapers at various times reported Henry to be the only resident present in Philipsburg. He made certain that traveler’s had the opportunity to rest and wet their whistle before riding on down the trail. On August 27, 1875, the New Northwest referred to Henry as “running the best saloon west of Deer Lodge.” In this same article the writer stated that in 1869, “silence and solitude reigned almost unchallenged. Of 1500 people, only three remained: Henry Inkamp, E.B. Waterbury and J. M. Merrill.” At this time no obituary or grave site has been found for Henry. Josiah Merrill (Merrell), spoken of in a previous paragraph was interviewed while living in the ninety-sixth dwelling in the 1870 census. His worth was $1,000. He was born at New York in 1834 with the occupation of grocer. When the Philipsburg Pioneer Association was formed in 1880 the roster stated Josiah M. Merrell arrived in California in 1848. He was known to the townspeople as “Doc” and had a shop with supplies for the ‘sick and infirmed.” Josiah was also credited by the Anaconda Standard, to be the “mill assayer” when the ore for the Hope Lode was discovered in 1867, In October 1893 Merrell bought the entire stock of the Freyschlag, Huffman and Company from the Granite and Philipsburg store at a sheriff sale for about $27,300. the property was to be sold later and obviously bought by Merrell. In November Merrell placed Frank Durand as general manager at the Philipsburg store. It is believed the property remained in Merrell’s possession until his death in Groveland, California on April 28, 1913. Earlier Josiah Merrell (Merrill) was discussed and I omitted the fact that while still “the assayer of Philipsburg” he ran for Joint Councilman July 1874 and lost the race to William Graham by 716 to 926 votes. Walter Kroger, active at the First State Bank as cashier and vice president, managed Merrell’s businesses and property after Josiah moved to California around 1900. The obituary stated Merrell made fortunes out of the Granite Mountain when he sold it at $45 a share. He was survived by a wife and children that were not named in the news article. Archives disclosed 22 newspaper articles on Henry Inkamp, also discussed earlier. Included was information Henry sent a 48# brick of silver worth $800 to Helena to be shipped by Murphy, Higgins and Company to the east, in the December 25, 1873, Weekly Herald. On September 29, 1876, Inkamp was elected to be chairman of the Committee on Credentials for the Democratic Convention. In 1881, 1884, and 1885 Henry was still running a saloon. He left Philipsburg for St. Louis on a long needed vacation from the saloon on December 20, 1888. The last article found was written by a correspondent regarding Philipsburg and a Mr. Carson who was credited for setting up the Good Templar’s Lodge. Henry Inkamp, E. Holland, G. Hammond and M. Kaiser were blamed for the whiskey that the correspondent felt caused the demise of the Lodge. Where Henry’s obituary is one can only wonder. Maybe in a newspaper that has not been archived. The 1870 Census listed as residing in dwelling number 121, Edwin B. Waterbury, (spoken of earlier as one of three lonely residents in 1869), born in Connecticut; aged 27 and “Justice of the Peace” in 1870. There were no assets of value listed during his interview. Edwin had been elected an officer of the Third District Council at the House of Representatives Montana Legislative Assembly in October 1866. He continued to be involved in Justice and Politics and in 1876 won an election against William Graham for Joint Councilman at the Democratic Convention by a vote of 48 to 37. In August of 1876 the property of lot 9, Block 4 in Philipsburg was transferred from Bryne to E.B. in the amount of $97.50. Plus Edwin sold to J.M. Merrell part of the Algonquin Lode for $1,000 and another part of the Algonquin, plus parts of the Franklin and Acquilla Lode for $4,000 during this same time period. Edwin was superintending along with the Brown brothers and others in developing the Boulder mines, according to the Helena Herald, April 27, 1876. In September 1878 he was elected Council with A.H. Mitchell and Joseph Hyde at the Democratic Convention in Deer Lodge. Edwin was on the Committee for Credentials for Silver Bow at the Territorial Democratic Convention according to the Butte Semi-weekly September 6, 1882. Judge Waterbury was public administrator of Silver Bow County in 1882 and 1883. He was a member of the First Constitutional Convention in 1884. Waterbury ran ads in the Butte semi-weekly May 9, 1885 for his business of Notary Public and Conveyancer. Judge Waterbury served as Police magistrate in Anaconda and held the office of school trustee. Judge Waterbury’s obituary in the Anaconda Standard September 19, 1893, stating he arrived in Montana about 1863; mined in Alder Gulch; conducted a successful business in Helena; mined in Elk Creek and arrived in Philipsburg with the first settlers. Moving to Butte he was in real estate with Judge Caleb E. Irvine. He died in his residence at the age of 69, on September 18th in Anaconda. The Judge had been in failing health for some years. He was a widower with two children surviving: E.A. Waterbury and Mrs. S. A. Kinnicott, both of Anaconda. The funeral was held at St. Mark’s Church on the 20th. Homer Cogswell lived in dwelling 46. Born in Pennsylvania, miner was listed as his occupation and he was 44 years old. His worth was valued at $100. I have been unable to find him in any census before or after 1870. Maybe this name was an alias. Dwelling number 47 lists Hugh Drummon (Drummond). Hugh, age 44, with assets of $150 was born in Connecticut. Hugh has been credited as being the namesake of the town of Drummond and described as an old trapper. Research has failed to substantiate this story. Census results for 1850 show Hugh living in Blackfish, Crittendon, Arkansas, age of 26 with spouse Mary age 24. At this time I have been unable to find an obituary or grave for Hugh. Interviewed in Philipsburg residence 40 for the 1870 census was Isaac Davis. A miner from Wales aged 33, Issac claimed no assets. He was living in San Francisco in 1880 and married with 9 other adults living in the household. Obviously the life as a miner was not paying very well. Living in residence 66 was George Sandy, a 42 year old grocer worth $700, whose birthplace was Washington D.C. By the late fall of 1870 George was running a “gin mill” in Superior, Montana according to Leeson in “History of Montana.” Research fails to disclose anymore information about George. William Barrett was interviewed in dwelling 120. His occupation was listed as “mail carrier” with $100 in assets; age 19; born in Ohio. The August 1870 census in Lewis and Clark County shows William as a “Herder” living with the Downer family. I found two William Barrett’s in the 1880 census. One was living in Kentucky with the occupation of printer, married to Josie with a male child under one year of age. The other Barrett was in Columbus, Ohio, married to Anna with the occupation of “Saloonist.” Research fails to show any history of William remaining in Montana. Cole Sanders was living in dwelling 156 when interviewed for the 1870 census. Cole age 31 was born in Missouri and with the occupation of miner listed assets as $3,000. In 1870 Cole secured property from Charlie Frost and Dan and Sandy (Emmanuel) Brown that included the Speckled Trout for $15,000. The Imperial Gold and Silver Mining Company was incorporated with New York investors and Cole was elected trustee. Operations were commenced for the Trout ore by a smelting process. This process did not work so they built a five stamp mill. In 1874 this area was re-organized into the Northwest Company and the five stamp mill was torn down according to two different articles in the Philipsburg Mail (1889 and 1901). Cole was a passenger on the Steamer Lacon and Guidon according to the Montana Post June 12, 1868. The passengers had left St. Louis on April 16. Cole must have been traveling for his merchandise as numerous advertisements are in the Montana Post during 1867 for Cole’s Novelty store in Helena. The Helena Weekly Herald listed Cole and his wife as passengers from Corinne, Utah on June 14, 1873. He was also not afraid to speak out against the governor of Montana concerning the possibility that the Governor was really not opposed to the railroad schemes. Granville Stuart as representative for the estate of James Stuart filed lawsuits against Cole for $4,500 in unpaid debt on April 18, 1874 (The New Northwest). Research fails to disclose the results of this lawsuit. By 1881 Cole was very involved in placing many valuable mines around Helena into the hands of capitalists (especially from New York). The last news articles research revealed about Cole was June 22, 1883 (The Helena Herald) when Cole was made trustee of the Alta Mining Company composed of New York investors. Obviously heavily involved in mining ventures, Cole probably made a large amount of money, but research does not uncover his obituary or grave anywhere in the Montana archives. Emmanuel “Sandy“ Brown was interviewed in dwelling 178. A miner age 50, born in Pennsylvania, Sandy and his brother Dan arrived in the Philipsburg area with Charlie Frost shortly after Hector made his Cordova discovery. They were discussed in an earlier article. We know Emmanuel and Dan had cabins that were used as claim locators in early claim documents, but do not know what happened to “Sandy.” Dan is the only one of this group of prospectors buried in the Philipsburg Cemetery. The Granite County Historical Society has placed a granite engraved plaque on his grave as there is no longer a headstone. Charlie Frost lived in dwelling number 157 in 1870. He was a miner born in Michigan aged 22 with no assets claimed. Apparently the deal with Cole Sanders had not yet occurred, because he should have had a share of the $15,000 paid the group for the Speckled Trout. Charlie moved to Santa Rosa, California by the 1880 census and was a mining engineer. Married to Kate age 28 they had children: Jennie, five, Walter, two and Arthur 2 months of age. By the 1900 Census Charlie was divorced, working as a real estate agent, with children Arthur (in the military) age 20 and Katie age 16 living with him. He was a California Democratic delegate in 1892 and 1898 and a registered voter through 1912. So far research has failed to find an obituary for Charlie. Continuing the list of names on the 1870 Philipsburg Census: Louis Schenple (Schnepel) was interviewed in dwelling 76. Born in Hanover, with both parent’s foreign born, Lewis was 19 years old, with the occupation of “Herder”; no assets were reported. When trying to reproduce the 1870 data the name comes up as Louis Schenplr. Obviously the data recorder misinterpreted the E as an R. It stands to reason that Louis was related to Henry and Henrietta Schnepel, but I am unable to research any information about him before or after the 1870 census. Henry and Henrietta came west from Missouri in 1862. They resided first at Bannack, next Virginia City and then Last Chance Gulch in Helena. About 1866, they moved to the lower Flint Creek Valley as “squatters” where the Alex Wight Ranch now is, by Hall. In 1867 the family moved to Philipsburg and in 1868 homesteaded a part of Section 26, T7N, R 14, which is the section adjoining Philipsburg. Also in 1868 Henry leased and operated the North-west Mill in Tower, plus owned numerous mines. The saying goes “He mined hard and fast but not always successfully. He sank money into mines almost as fast as his wife, who operated the ranch could make it.” Henry died in 1886 and the homestead was sold to the St. Louis and Montana Company. By this time the family had moved to the “upper ranch.” Henrietta was an astute business woman and resolved all the mining debt and claims; her grandsons legal problems, plus operated a successful ranch. She insured the ranch would continue in the family by selling it in 1899, to J.J. McDonald the husband of her niece Louisa. Henrietta died in 1908 at the age of 80. The ranch continues to be owned by family, currently John “Pat” McDonald and his wife Esther. They continue to use Henrietta’s cattle brand, one of the earliest in the area. The Schnepel family are buried in the Deer Lodge cemetery. Interviewed in dwelling number 32 was Benjamin and his brother Lee Degenhart. Both were listed as “Stable Keepers”; born in Prussia; total assets $800.00. Ben was 35 years of age. Ben came west in 1852 and arrived in the Philipsburg area in 1867. He owned and operated a ranch at the mouth of Spring Creek for a number of years. This property is currently part of the Mitchell Munis Ranch, three miles south of town. Research revealed a law suit in April 1879, where Ben was defendant and plaintiff, Patrick Donahan. The suit was heard in the District Court December 1879 with the following comment found in the April 9, 1880 Philipsburg Mail: “Among the latest arrivals we note that of the very fortunate individual Benjamin Degenhart. By the reception he gets from former friends and neighbors we judge his stay will be short.” Research has not revealed what the suit was over or who won. Ben is listed in the 1880 census as living in Pipestone, Jefferson County, Montana with Mark and Margaret Delany and their one year old son Mark. He never married. Ben died in a Butte hospital on July 22, 1911 of paralysis at the age of 78. His brother Lee was with him at the time of passing. Survivors were: three brothers (the only known residence was Lee’s in Philipsburg) and a sister that lived in Tacoma, Washington. Ben was buried by the Modern Woodsmen at Mt. Moriah Cemetery in Butte. Lee Degenhart was 26 years old at the time of the 1870 Census. He was one year old when his parents immigrated from Prussia and settled in Fountain, Wisconsin. Lee joined the Wisconsin Volunteer Army when the Civil war started, serving in Company F of the Sixth regiment as a Corporal under Captain Henry Schildts. He was honorably discharged July 14, 1865 and returned to Wisconsin to join the harness trade with brother Peter. In 1868, Lee left for Montana via the Missouri River route to Fort Benton; then continued on to Philipsburg where his brother Ben was. On arrival he owned a saddle horse and had twenty five cents in silver. Lee married Mary Ellen O’Neil (daughter of Hugh and Margret O’Neil) on December 31, 1877 in Philipsburg. While freighting from Helena, Deer Lodge and the Bitter Root, Lee established a ranch near Philipsburg and became very involved in horse racing. Retiring from ranching in 1913, he continued in banking and real estate (example: The Degenhart Building). Lee died after a run-a-way horse accident March 25, 1922. Burial was a Military funeral (as the second to last Grand Army of the Republic member) at the Philipsburg Cemetery. Son Chris sold the ranch to the Dupont’s and Veitor’s in 1952. As I was attempting to replicate Henry Timbermaster’s record in the 1870 census archives, I uncovered two other Timbermaster names living in Philipsburg. Low and behold when they are searched for, two more pages of names for the P’Burg, next to Pikes Peak and Pioneer interviews appear. Research always is a humbling experience. So instead of only 30 people living in the ‘Burg there are 69 and 263 total dwellings. The Timbermasters were: Henry (20), born in Baden, Germany, in dwelling 181; Henry (21), born in Missouri a miner and Frederick his father (50), born in Hanover also a miner, in dwelling 224. Included in the new names are Henry, Henrietta and twelve year old Matilda Schnepel (spelled Scneple on the record) living in residence 241. They were discussed in week twenty-nine. Assets claimed were $10,000 for both Henry and Henrietta, with Henry listed as a “drover.” Living in dwelling number 158 was William whose last name is difficult to read. Could be anywhere from Burwin to Eurwine, and I am unable to replicate the report. He was a miner born in Tennessee, age 32 , without assets. Besides the first Timbermaster listed without an occupation there was Samuel Fishel (26) from Bavaria; Alfred Greew (40) from Indiana; and Augustus Sherman ( 33) from New York with $500 in assets. Augustus Nen age 35 from Poland is without assets or occupation but I thought maybe the name was Neu instead. Nen is the spelling registered for 1870 and is not available in any other census, nor does research produce any Augustus Neu. Dwellings 196 through 224 lists eighteen miners: John Calling age 33 from Ohio; Patrick Shew (?Schuh) age 24 from Illinois; David Haacke age 27 from Canada; the two Timbermaster’s; Frank McAndrews age 38 from Ireland with $150 in assets; Elias Lytle age 40 from Ohio; John Daly age 32 from England with $75.00 in assets; Elias Eihinge ( ? spelling) age 39 from Georgia with $50.00 in assets; Samuel Swan age 24 from Scotland; George Calderwood age 46 from Maine with $500.00 in assets; Charles Gaylord age 45 from England with $200.00 in assets and his twelve year old son Terry also listed as a miner born in Illinois; Jefferson Niles age 40 from Michigan with $400 in assets, who had moved to the Bitter Root and was married to Josephine (age 27) with Maggie age six and Wallace age one, by the 1880 Census; James Wilson age 35 from Kentucky (there was also a James Wilson in Lincoln and at Blackfoot in the 1870 census. None remained in Montana by 1880); William Reed (30) and Edward Smith (32) were both from Illinois without assets; and Samuel Keating age 28 from England with $100 in assets. Eli Holland and his partner James Estill, both miners will be detailed later. James Martin (34) from Ireland was a stone mason; John Crutchfield (45) from Ohio was a millwright; Henry Rowley (62) from New York was a carpenter; Henry Sherman (31) from Hanover was a farmer (unknown if related to Augustus); Ferdinand Kennett age 30 from Missouri was a book keeper with assets of $1,000. Somehow he became manager of Granite Mountain, Hope Mining Company, for a short time, when Horace Countryman left. According to the April 25, 1889 Mail story he had little or no knowledge of silver mining; Charles H. Hagar (31) was an engineer from Vermont, with $75 in assets; John Sanders (40) living with Holland was a blacksmith from Pennsylvania and apparently not the Johan Erik (John) Sander’s buried in the Philipsburg cemetery as he was born in 1855; and two were “keeping house” (Henrietta Schnepel [42] and Lydia Gaylord [40] ).Matilda Schnepel (12), born in Missouri did not have an occupation listed. Miner, Eli Holland (40 ) from Ohio with $750.00 in assets is a familiar name. He was important to the Flint Creek Mining history along with his frequent partner James Estill (34), in dwelling 205, without assets. Eli, James and Josiah Merrell (Merrill) spoken of earlier, were the original claimants of the Granite Mountain lode. The story goes that the silver lead was first found by Eli while hunting elk in 1873. Nothing was done with the discovery until Eli, James and Josiah recorded the claim on July 14, 1875. Apparently there was to be a fourth owner added named William McIntyre, if he would dig a fifty foot shaft. “The shaft was sunk fifty five feet and the contract thrown up in disgust” (Philipsburg Mail, November 14, 1889). The deeds show Charles McLure acquired title October 18, 1880. Eli remained in Philipsburg after the 1870 census and was living with John Brophy when the 1880 census was taken. The census records were not correct on Eli’s birthplace. He was born in Alabama in 1832 and in the 1850 Census his parents William and Sarah were living in Panola, County, Texas with Eli and his three siblings. By 1900, Eli had been married for 16 years to Annie, maiden name unknown and was residing in Deer Lodge. After selling the Granite Mountain claims, Eli continued in mining. He sold the Salmon and Cliff Lodes to the Algonquin Company for $25,000 in 1880. Then by 1887 was involved with the Little Tom Mine; in 1888 with the Henrietta Silver Mining company; then by December 1888 was superintendent of the Hatta in the Dunkleberg District. According to the New Northwest, Eli was an incorporator in the BiMetallic Extension Mining and Milling Company in December 1892. His partners were John A. and J.B. Featherman, Joseph Hyde, Josiah Shull and E.C. Freyschlag with the capital stock valued at $4,632,500.00. At that time Eli paid taxes of $9,400. Eli, John Duffy, Parker, Leavens (and others) sued the Granite Mountain Mining Company over the Company running mill water down Douglas and Frost creek. They won with a $5,000 settlement according to the New Northwest , December 24, 1886. There were numerous ads in the Newspapers about Eli and James Estell’s livery stables in Deer Lodge and in March of 1883, Eli dissolved his interest and James took over all of the business. In September of 1889 a news article stated Eli was building two four bedroom cottages on B street between third and fourth and then the newspapers are very quiet about any happenings with the Holland household. Eli was an active Mason and is buried in the Deer Lodge Hillcrest cemetery. He died on September 24, 1908 at the age of 78. Research has failed to produce an obituary or photograph of Eli. He surely had an estate yet the archives do not reveal anything about it or his wife Annie’s whereabouts after 1900. James apparently did not continue in the mining business after he sold his part of the discovery claims one and two east of the Willard Lode to Holland et al for $100 in April of 1880. He married Mary, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Levengood of Anaconda in 1874. They had at least six children. Four of the children excelled in school and were on the Deer Lodge school honor rolls every semester during the late 1800’s. Besides the livery stable, James also owned a barber shop and there are want ads for a barber at the shop during the 1880’s. In 1884 James (and others) filed a lawsuit against D.C. Irvine over water rights in Tin Cup Joe Creek and this was settled on June 6, 1890. The final judgment was published May 16, 1891 in favor of Irvine for his court costs. James was a democrat and involved in all of the democratic conventions. Often he served as delegate or alternate. He was a founding member of the Democratic Cleveland and Hendrickson Club and elected a member of the Bylaws and resolutions committee. In 1896 the New Northwest listed 125 members of the BiMetallic Free Silver club with James Estell listed as one of the 125 members. He sold his Transfer Omnibus to Warfiled and Company of Butte in January 1885 and in April 1888, in The New Northwest, offered up for sale all of the horses and equipment from the livery stable, 400 acre ranch, 30 head of stock and his personal residence. In 1889, James purchased a ranch from Peter Valiton. The Estell family moved to that ranch south of Deer Lodge in August of 1890. Obviously James wanted to get his family settled before his death, as he died of “Dropsy” at the age of 50 years and 6 months on November 15, 1890. The funeral was held at the family residence south of Deer Lodge. Mary placed a notice of sale in the July 16, 1892 New Northwest, listing: work horses, brood mares, single trotters, yearling colts, multiple ranch and farm equipment plus “I also have four fine ranches” to sell. James once a miner without assets left a large estate and the Estell name continues to live on in Deer Lodge.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Granite County Seminar, Stamp Mill Demonstration and tours

      Wonderful  audience at the stamp mill demonstration by Dave Harris and Jim Waldbillig.

There was at least 119 people attending the 130 pm demonstration and about 50 early risers came to the 9 am demonstration. Both demonstrations were on June 24th before the Tours.

After the stamp mill viewing, Jim Waldbillig led a walking tour of at least 21 people through downtown Philipsburg with handouts of the 1894 Sandborn Insurance maps detailing the businesses and buildings present at that time. Positive feedback has been received from tour attendees!

Ted Antonioli led a group by motor vehicles to the Ghost Town of Granite where at least 17 individuals and a group of 24 with  Katie McDonald were provided with a walking tour. This group also received Sandborn Insurance map handouts of the town of Granite in 1889. A history of Granite was provided by Ted Antonioli. A lesson in local geology was provided by Katie McDonald and Ted Antonioli detailed the mines. Steve Neal provided a picture story of the early structures and persons who resided in Granite during its heyday.  Feedback said the tour was enjoyed by everyone.

On June 23 an interested audience of 41 people heard Robert Carriker speak on "Father Peter DeSmet, well known in the 19th Century and little known in the 21st Century." 
Next Ted Antonioli spoke about Father DeSmet's "Eldorado" at Henderson Gulch.
Then Bill Taylor detailed the "Railroads to Silver and Gold." 

As always the audience was comfortable in the Granite County Museum conference room.

At the Philipsburg 150th Birthday Party on June 22,2017  the huge audience spilled over from the Old Fire Hall onto Sansome Street. Many speakers welcomed the crowd prior to Ted Antonioli detailing the discovery of silver by Hector Horton and the reason the town was named Philipsburg not Deidiesheimerburgh.






Monday, May 1, 2017

Granite County Historical Society Seminar and Field Trips, June 23-24, 2017

The Granite County Historical Society will help celebrate Philipsburg's 150th birthday with events on June 23 and 24.

June 23, 6 pm at Museum. Granite County Historical Society seminar featuring Robert Carriker, Professor Emeritus of History at Gonzaga University, discussing "Peter John De Smet: Well-known in the Nineteenth Century, Not so Well-known in the Twenty-first Century." Ted Antonioli will then talk about "Father De Smet's El Dorado - Flint Creek".  We will conclude with a talk on the Drummond and Philipsburg Railroad by Bill Taylor, author (with Jan Taylor) of excellent books on the "Railroads to Gold and Silver" in Montana.

June 24, 1:30 pm, half day Granite County Historical Society plus guests from the Natural History Institute will meet at the James Stuart/Hope millsite at the east end of Broadway at 1:30 pm for an introduction to area history by Ted Antonioli and area geology by Katie McDonald. A demonstration of a stamp mill by Dave Harris, Jim Waldbillig and helpers will follow. We will then break into two groups for tours of Granite (by Ted) or Philipsburg (by Jim). 

Monday, April 24, 2017

Nancy Flood, Daughters and Granddaughters

                         

After the Civil War many women were widowed with large families. Because of the law of the land, other than finding another man to marry, very few options were open to support their families. Men on the east coast were few due to the casualties of war and westward immigration. Mary, the widowed mother of Nannie, Julia and Rozenia Gasper was left to support seven children on $7.00 a month government pension.

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Lannon and Commerce at the Mouth of Bear

     

In Captain John Mullan’s  Report on the Construction of a Military Road From Fort Walla Walla to Fort Benton is a list of petitioner signers on December 15, 1859.   The forty eight men desired that the new county in Washington Territory be named “Bitterroot”, but the legislative body chose the name Missoula. On this petition is the name Lannon, but there is no first name.

Friday, April 7, 2017

Kate Price Dingwall

Lucy Coberley's  grand daughter Kate (Catherine) Price arrived with her brother John in the Deer Lodge Valley at the age of eighteen. She first stayed with Aunt Fedelia on the Stark ranch then went to live with Grandma Lucy at her hotel near Gold Creek. She attended school at New Chicago for a short time, before marrying William Dingwall.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Removing the Stamp Mill at the Royal Mine

Here are some pictures from Larry Hoffman (bottom) and Jim Waldbillig (top two) of the removal of the stamp mill components at the Royal Mine in 2013. This is the stamp mill battery and other equipment that is being reassembled at the Hope Millsite in Philipsburg. Crew was Larry Hoffman, Jim Waldbillig, Phil McDonald, and Dave Harris.



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Monday, March 13, 2017

Phosphate Mining at Douglas Creek

Phosphate mining was an important component of Granite County's economy from the 1940s through the 1960s. The mines were in Permian Phosphoria formation several miles up the Douglas Creek drainage near Hall.  The geologic conditions are favorable as the formation is folded into an anticline and faulted so there several exposures of the main ore bed in a small area.

At first mining was conducted by the International Minerals and Chemical Corp. The phosphate rock is lower grade than the large mines near Garrison, and upgrading by flotation was necessary. The mill was next to the highway near the mouth of Douglas Creek. In the 1960s Cominco operated the mine with a mill part way between the mine and the highway. The spur to the mine and mill were named "Elephant" after Cominco's brand of phosphate fertilizer. Dave Harris worked in the mine for a time and says the mine was believed to have 40 years of reserves above the tunnel level. However after just a few years of operation the mine was shut and the mill equipment was moved to a Cominco mine in Greenland. According to Cominco's Montana manager, the mine simply could not match the costs of the big open pit phosphate mine at Vernal Utah. That mine is now owned by Simplot and is still operating.

Extensive records of the mine are located in the archives of the University of Montana.  Environmental issues related to phosphate dust are discussed in some detail in the Clancy Gordon papers at UM.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Building of the first Road through Northern Granite County

                       


As you speed down I-90 at 80 miles per hour to your shopping spree in Missoula,  have you ever thought about the perils and labor expended when this valley was first traveled? The selection of developing this route is chiefly credited to Captain John Mullan (1830-1909). Arriving in the area with Washington Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens in 1853 to survey a northern railroad route, Mullan was left with a small group of soldiers and laborers near Fort Owen during the winter of 53-54.  He was given  broad orders to explore and develop  wagon routes  “which in time should lend themselves as aids to the construction of our railroad lines” (Mullan Journal). After gleaning much information during the winter, Mullan left the Bitter Root with a small group on March 1, 1854 (on horse back); crossed the Rocky Mountains on the 10th; reached Fort Benton on the 14th.  Left Fort Benton on the 17th after fitting up a wagon train and re-crossed the range, reaching the Bitter Root Camp again on the 31st.  

A later trip synopsis provides a good descriptor of the geography: “…reaching the Big Blackfoot, we crossed to its left bank on the first and second (of July) by means of a wagon-boat and a small bateau…Our location up the Hell’s Gate this season involved eleven crossings of this stream in fifty miles; the first was ferried; the rest forded. This stream is from one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty feet broad; its current rapid, and its course very serpentine over the distance that we followed it. Its valley is from one to four miles broad, and mostly timbered with open pine….We reached no point of much difficulty until making the eleventh crossing of the Hell’s Gate, where a spur involved a cutting of half a mile to enable us to pass it. This was completed by the ninth of July, when with rapid marches we hurried forward to the mouth of Gold creek…The upper portion of the valley of Flint Creek may be found suited to agriculture.”

After the first exploration and clearing of a route between Walla Walla and Fort Benton, Mullan was transferred to a command position in the east during the Indian Wars. When he returned to the area, in 1859,  his focus was no longer on the railroad but to develop a Military Road. Mullan was able to lobby Congress for  $30,000 and set about this task. Mullan sent men out to various spots where they made camp and worked all winter on their designated area.   

Mullan then set out to review his road and determine mileage and the dollars he needed to appropriate from Congress to finish paying  for the road. This journey began in 1860 and was very different than his 1853 -54 trips as the land was now becoming settled. The daily journal details the geography  all the way from Walla Walla. 

This article will quote only those days from Missoula through Granite county: Twenty eighth day-Move to Higgin’s and Worden’s store, at Hell Gate (Missoula),…road excellent, wood water and grass here; good place to rest animals for a day or two; blacksmith shop at Van Dorn’s and supplies of all kinds can be obtained, dry goods, groceries, beef, vegetables and fresh animals if needed. Twenty ninth day- Move to Blackfoot bridge, eleven miles; road good; wood water and grass abundant. Thirtieth day- Move to Campbell’s camp, fifteen miles; road excellent; good wood, water and grass abound. Thirty first day- Move to Lannon’s camp, nine miles; road excellent; may have to double team to Beaver Tail Butte; wood, water and grass abundant (near present day Bearmouth). Thirty second day- Move eleven miles to Lyon’s creek, crossing enroute Hells Gate Bridge; road good; wood water and grass at camp (south side of the river following the current Mullan Road). Thirty third day- Move to Flint Creek, distance eleven miles; road somewhat hilly but still not steep; wood water and grass at camp. Thirty fourth day-Move thirteen and one half miles to  Gold Creek or American Fork of Hell’s Gate river; road excellent; wood, water and grass at camp. Supplies of all kinds to be had here.”

The way Mullan measured miles was by running a single wheel with a handle in front of him and knowing how many wheel turns equaled a mile he computed the daily trip. The group arrived at Fort Benton August 1st and on August 7th the first and last major military expedition moved out over the newly completed route.

From then on, although not maintained, gold miners and cattlemen used the trail and in later years, the railroads followed part of the route, as did Highway 10, then interstate 90.

Captain John Mullan in the early 1860"s from the John Mullan Papers at Georgetown University Library, Special Collections Research Center Washington D.C.

Monday, January 16, 2017

Gun Registration in Montana during WWI

        One day George Byrd summoned me into his antique shop in downtown Philipsburg and showed me an early 1900s era Sheriff's log recording such items as investigations and arrests. Also in the log was a detailed but undated list of gun owners in Granite County along with the model and serial number of every gun in each person's possession.

Friday, September 30, 2016

Mettle of Granite County, Chapter Seven, The War is Over (Part three)

The Great War is over

 Table of Contents

The war is over
Trying to get back to normal 

"Patriotic demonstration"headlined the newspaper article reporting Philipsburg's celebration of  the end of the Great War. Mayor S.E. McClees declared November 11 a holiday in celebration of the signing of the Armistice. An impromptu parade was formed, headed by a soldier and a sailor, carrying an American flag between them. A band and The Red Cross members in uniform followed them, and that was followed by about thirty cars. They stopped at the homes of J.W. Duffy, then the home of Harry Parfitt Sr. “in honor of the young man from each home who gave his life while fighting for Democracy.”  At both homes the band played the Star Spangled Banner. The "Kaiser" was hauled to his last resting place, a scaffold erected over a huge pile of boxes and wood, by a truck bedecked with War Campaign literature. Six small boys, riding donkeys acted as pallbearers. They were Edwin Carmichael, William Duffy, Humphrey Courtney, Emil Perey, Thomas Gorman and Chadweid Shaffer. At eight o’clock the flames of a large bonfire started mounting the scaffold upon which a dummy of the abdicated Kaiser was resting. When the dummy dropped into the flames the crowd cheered wildly.

Thursday, September 29, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One, Chapter Seven, World War I (Part Two)

World War I

As the troubles in Europe began to ferment and our young men began signing up for the military frequent letters were published in the Mail from George Cartier. He was a member of the Seventh Division U.S. National Guard, of Pennsylvania, stationed in El Paso, Texas. “George is the only Philipsburg boy known to have been called for military duty on the Mexican border” stated the Philipsburg Mail, September 8, 1916.

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One, Chapter Seven Part One (Civil War)

Chapter Seven

Patriots of Granite County: From Civil War through World War I

 

Civil War Veterans

The history of patriotism in Montana is well documented. Prior to immigration to Montana a large portion of the population was involved in the Civil War. This is apparent in the disagreement over the name of the first territorial capital.
 Varina was the name chosen by some of the Confederate sympathizer’s among the miners; even though they were far removed from the battlefields of the Civil War these men were, for the most part, intensely interested in the conflict and had definite allegiances. Since Jefferson Davis was as much a hero to those whose sympathies were with the south as Abraham Lincoln was to the others, it occurred to the town company to name the new camp after Davis’s wife. The papers were presented to Dr. Bissell (Giles Gaylord Bissell of Connecticut had been named Judge on June 12, 1863), whose sympathies were just as strong for the northern cause. According to the Bissell family legend, the doctor struck his makeshift desk and exclaimed, “I’ll be damned if I’ll sign it that way”. Crossing out Varina he substituted Virginia, allegedly with the further remark that “…no such blot as this shall stain the honor of the camp.[i]

Saturday, September 24, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One Chapter six

Chapter Six

More businessmen, merchants and miners

Table of Contents

Bowen, Thompson and Murphy......................................................1-7Haverty.................................................................................. .....5
Mclees.........................................................................................7-8
Courtney......................................................................................8-10
Steber..........................................................................................10-11
Hyde...........................................................................................11-12
Patten.........................................................................................13-18
Sprague......................................................................................14-16
Kistle.........................................................................................16-17
Albright......................................................................................18
Charmichael...............................................................................19-21
Featherman................................................................................21-23
Horrigan....................................................................................23-24
Cartier.......................................................................................24-25
Endnotes....................................................................................26-27.

Friday, September 23, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Chapter Five Businessmen, Merchants and Miners

Chapter Five

Businessmen, Merchants and Miners

Table of Contents

McDonald
Lindstad
McDonald Cont'd
Blumenthal
J.C. Duffy
Neitz
Gannon
Schillings
Neu
McDougal
Durand
Sayrs
Doe

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One Chapter Four

Chapter Four

More merchants and businessmen

Table of Contents

Huffman......................................................................................1-9
Winninghoff................................................................................9-19
Crowley......................................................................................19-20
McLean.......................................................................................20-22
Chinese.......................................................................................22-23
Proebsting....................................................................................23

Huffman’s

A merchant and political family that has been promoter’s of Granite County, without exception are the Huffman’s. They began their history here with A.S. (Addison) and C.T. (Cosmo). References are found in the Citizen Call, in 1893 and 1894, demonstrating, the family was established in the community at that time.  They were also having financial difficulties, during the silver crash.

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One Chapter Three

Chapter Three

Table of Contents

Weinstein.......................................................................................1-4
Morrison........................................................................................4-6
Noe.................................................................................................6
W.E. Moore.....................................................................................7
Bothscheider.....................................................................................7
Connolly...........................................................................................7-11
Pizer.................................................................................................8
Kroger..............................................................................................11-16
Prohibition........................................................................................16-18
Hauck...............................................................................................18-22
McLeod............................................................................................22-23
Fires.................................................................................................23-24
Ringling............................................................................................24-25
Cone..................................................................................................25
Caul...................................................................................................25

 Merchants and Businessmen

 The discovery of gold and silver was the reason people immigrated to the remote western region in the 1880’s. These miners needed supplies and sustenance and the need was filled by stalwart entrepreneurs, not afraid to take a gamble. Often they were also miners or invested in the mines. I will attempt to describe some of those people and their descendants in this chapter.

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One Chapter Two (Part Two)

                                        Mettle of Granite County 

                                                        Book One

                                         Chapter Two (Part Two)

                                  Loraine M. Bentz Baker Domine


This is a continuation of the previous blog post.

Table of contents

Page family................................
O'Neil, Hickey, Hunt families........................................

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One Chapter Two

Table of Contents 

 Kaiser………………………………………………………4-10
Titus, McKenzie, Harrington……………………………….11-13 Stephens…………………………………………………….13-14 Shodair………………………………………………………14-16 Politics………………………………………………………17-25
Fairbairn.................................................................................17
G.W. Morse.............................................................................18-23
Ringling…………………………………………………….25-26 Ballard………………………………………………………26-28 Endnotes…………………………………………………..

 Chapter Two (Part One) More influential Pioneers and Politicians

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Chapter One

The first book of this History series is sold out so I have decided to post it on this blog. Areas that have been further researched since it was published in 2009 are either updated or linked to articles on this blog or internet that provide further information. If as you are reading an area is highl;ighted, click on the highlight and it will take you to more information.                                          




                                           METTLE OF GRANITE COUNTY
                                                           BOOK  I
 DETAILING THE LIVE’S OF INFLUENTIAL PIONEERS, POLITICIANS,BUSINESSMEN AND MERCHANTS IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE COUNTY PLUS ALL THE COUNTY PATRIOTS THROUGH WWI

Monday, September 5, 2016

Mettle of Granite County, Book 1 Introduction



                              METTLE
                                   OF
                    GRANITE COUNTY
                            BOOK ONE
                    DETAILING THE LIVES OF
                     INFLUENTIAL PIONEERS,
            POLITICIANS, BUSINESSMEN AND
MERCHANTS IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE COUNTY
       PLUS ALL THE COUNTY PATRIOTS THROUGH
                                WORLD WAR I



               LORAINE M. BENTZ BAKER DOMINE

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Oro Y Plata and Winchell placer mines

The Oro Y Plata placer mine in the lower part of Henderson gulch has a complex history dating to the late 1860s, part of which is told in a 1911 court case over water rights and in an undated, unsigned report in the Frank Brown archive at UM. Thos. Smith is said to have started a ditch to wash the ground in November of 1868 and finished it the following  year. Ferguson bought the ground in about 1876 and sold it to Quong Lee 4 years later who then sold it again to Deer Lodge merchant Buck Jim  and You Hoy. The Chinese miners eventually sold it to Dominic Byrne, and subsequently was acquired by Philipsburg hardwaremen Gannon and Neu. It was at this stage (approximately 1905) that the Frank Brown archive report was written. In 1907, former Anaconda Co. President Scallon took a crack at the mine. Some of the Oro Y Plata ground was no doubt mined by the big Henderson bucket-line dredge during and after WWII.

The bench east of Sherryl crossing (between Maxville and Hall, on the Conn Ranch) has been extensively washed for gold. The gullied ground is now tree covered, apparently as a result of the mining. In Gold Placers of Montana (1949), Lyden suggests that the mined bench is an extension of the Henderson gulch placer deposit in an old channel now on the opposite side of Flint Creek. This is an eminently reasonable interpretation! The Antonioli brothers recently panned a sample of this bar and considerable scheelite, the tungsten mineral also present in the Henderson placer, appears in the pan concentrate.

This mine is sometimes locally called the Chinese diggings and it's history is a bit obscure. Part of the ground was initially developed by the experienced placer miner James Batterton and associates operating as the Deer Lodge Ditch and Mining Company in 1872 and 1873.  Batterton had been involved in Pioneer and Cable and had done well in both places. Apparently an even earlier mine on this bar had been developed by Winchell and Co (see 1873 link). Winchell's interest was sold in 1874 to John Wilson of Blackfoot. In 1875 it was said to be yielding $20 a day to the hand, an excellent result. Perhaps  the most appropriate name for these workings would be the Winchell mine.

Friday, August 12, 2016

In the Beginning

There has been very little researched information available about the early Native Americans in Granite County. This article will attempt to collect and discuss what is known about tribal history, anthropology, and archaeological documentation. Because the information is constantly changing with all the new DNA evidence and newly discovered artifacts, plus identification of the mineral compositions and sites, this article could easily be outdated by the time it is published. Fortunately because it is in a blog format, changes can be made as new information is confirmed.

Thursday, June 30, 2016

4th Annual Seminar and Field Trip 2016

Thirty three people attended the June 17th evening seminar at the Granite County Museum.
Archaeologist Patricia Flint Lacey PhD presented a slide show of her discoveries at Bearmouth and the Weaver Ranch during the time she was working on her Master and Doctoral education beginning in the 1970's. She showed slides of the pictographs drawn by Vision Seekers in the Bearmouth area and replicas of knifes and arrows made from the Eyebrow "Flint" located near Henderson Gulch. The artifacts Dr. Lacey found are all at the Granite County Museum. I am certain the staff at the Museum would be thrilled to show them to you.

Marlene Chor, owner of the Budel Homestead and ranch, where her mother was raised, presented the history that started the lower Fred Burr archaeological dig. Artifacts were found in 1989 and from about 2006 to present has been an active site most every summer. 

Kenneth Schmidt (anthropologist) that is the site manager presented artifact information. This site has shown evidence of habitation by people as early as 4,000 years before the present date to the late prehistoric stage. Evidence consists of knife's, awls, arrowheads, pottery, maize (possibly brought in from Utah Wasatch Front natives), tally bones, large amounts of animal bones, post holes, hearths and charcoal. There is at least one white Shoshonian knife/awl in the numerous artifacts. These artifacts are currently stored with the landowner and will be placed at the Museum at a later date.

Ted Antonioli presented a brief history of the Fur Trappers (Peter Skene Ogden) and mountain men that traversed the Flint Creek Valley in the early 1800's. Hugh Monroe (Rising Wolf) who lived many years with the Blackfoot Indians may have been the first white man in the valley and Peter Skene Ogden was in the valley from August 2 through the 18th in 1825, as documented in his Hudson Bay Journals.

June 18th at 8am thirty four people were at the James Stuart Stamp Mill site. The Historical Society's Stamp mill being restored had a pulley belt attached and ran the camshaft for a short time. Parts were being delivered that would allow the stamps to run later in the day. Unfortunately none of the tour was present when the stamp mill was run at 1pm.

Thirty One people traveled up the mountain to the Algonquin where Ted Antonioli gave a presentation of the history of the mine and mill. A tour was made of the current building still standing. Gina Vale, owner of Hasmark presented information on the settlement of Hasmark and the old saloon building she is restoring.

Twenty six people continued on to the Georgetown and Cable City area. Bruce Cox, geologist with the Trust that currently owns the Cable mining claims gave an excellent tour of the placer's, mine and Chinatown.

The evening was spent at the Waldbillig Ranch eating barbecued hamburgers and watermelon.

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Granite County Historical Society Fourth Annual Seminar and Field Trip

Update: We are pleased to announce that we have finalized a speaker to tell us about the Fred Burr archeological site. Ken Schmidt of Anaconda has participated in the site excavation from the beginning and will answer questions about the progress of the dig and interpretation of the site.


Thursday, April 28, 2016

"This is the Kaiser House and I am The Kaiser"

The story goes that Melchoir (Michael) Kaiser used to sit in front of the Kaiser House repeating the above phrase late in his life. By that time he had contributed a great deal to the community of and around Philipsburg.

Michael was born December 21, 1827 in Switzerland. He immigrated to St. Louis, Missouri in 1846. Trained as a shoemaker, he set up a shop in St. Louis. Michael married Louisa Wagoner (Wagner) in 1850 and they moved to California in 1852. In California Michael worked in the market business around San Francisco and Marysville. Next they moved to Virginia City, Nevada in 1860 where they operated a butcher shop, grocery and supply store. In 1866 Michael, Louisa and children John and Hermann moved to Helena, Montana. In Helena, Michael built the Planter Hotel. In 1867 they moved to Cable where he built the International Hotel. Michael ran that business until 1878 when he moved to Philipsburg.

I am uncertain as to when the original frame structure known as the Kaiser house in Philipsburg on the corner of Montgomery and Broadway was built. The New Northwest in July 1881 stated:
The enterprising people of  Philipsburg, with an unmistaken confidence in the future, are building costly houses, both public and private. The new three story brick hotel, to replace the frame structure long and favorably known as the Kaiser House, is nearly ready for the roof.
The Rocky Mountain Husbandman, October 13, 1881 had the following article:
Of the  two hotels, the Keizer House, kept be M. Keizer is worthy of special mention. The House is receiving an extensive addition in the shape of a two story brick with a large basement. The house was planned and the thereof supertended by Hector S. Horton, Philipsburg's principal mason. It is sightly located on the corner, along side the old hotel building. It is tastily finished and especially arranged with the design of economy, convenience and ventilation. The front porch is also two stories high and extends halfway around the building. In the large basement Mr. Keizer will open a fine bar and billard hall. When completed Philipsburg will be next to Helena in the way of fine hotels, and it will be a great addition and credit to the town.
 Louisa's obituary states that she had  lived in Philipsburg continuously since 1873, which leads me to believe that she ran the Philipsburg business while Michael ran the Cable business. Also their son, John is credited with arriving in Philipsburg in 1869.  In 1888 the Kaiser House Annex on North Montgomery was added to the establishment.

On May 4, 1893, Michael was named  the first Alderman for Philipsburg and in the May 11, Philipsburg Mail, was the statement:
The Kaiser Brothers have been so busy superintending the work on the new water system of late that they have been obliged to delay proceedings on the proposed resumption of operations on the East Granite; but they expect it will be carried on as soon as the water plant is completed and they can devote time to starting it the right way.
Although the article states brothers, I believe that Michael was also involved with John and Hermann in  setting up the water company.  The operation was a major undertaking and built a pipe system to provide water to the growing community. The system was described in the Citizen Call December 25, 1899:
The water from the South Fork of Boulder is conducted a distance of two and a half miles over the divide, through a series of heavy pressure pipes and flumes, the pipes being a distance of 8,000 and the flumes for a distance of nearly 10,000 feet. The two lines laying in the form of a Y, bearing from different heads and emptying into one receiving tank. The water is then conducted by flume from the receiving tank and emptied into the water of Stuart Gulch (note the spelling). From the head of Stuart Gulch  the water is conducted through flumes and pipes a distance of  three and three fourths miles to a larger reservoir located one and one-fourth miles north of Philipsburg. This reservoir is eighty feet long, thirty feet wide and twelve feet deep and holds 149,000 gallons. From the reservoir the water is conducted  through iron mains to the city of Philipsburg, a distance of  one and one-fourth miles. This reservoir is located at an elevation of 357 feet above the corner of Montgomery and Broadway indicating a pressure at that point of 165 pounds to the square inch... The Water Works  system was constructed at a cost of $55,000... The owners of this system operate under a franchise granted by the city of Philipsburg to furnish water for a period of ten years at the rate of $100 and $112.50 per hydrant per year.
By 1896 the water company was referred to as The M and J K Water Company with Hermann Kaiser President and J,W, Suppinger Secretary, according to stock holder meeting minutes. One of the major votes during 1896 was whether to sell out to the Philipsburg Water Company.  Obviously the vote was negative because the company  continued ownership into the early 1900's.

Maintenance of the system was frequently cited with notices published in the Philipsburg Mail that water would be shut off while a water main was repaired or the crew could clean the reservoir. Also, the City Council in 1896 ordered the Water Company to remove all private street and alley hydrants. This was to be done by the first of May at owners expense and the hydrants would now have to be placed in the consumers homes or yards. After a notice of water being turned off for a reservoir cleaning in 1901, the City of Philipsburg bought out the Kaiser Water System but I have not determined the exact date.

The Kaiser Family were members of the Philipsburg Pioneer Association founded in 1880. At the founding meeting there were nine bylaws adopted by the members, of which I will quote two:
Sixth: we reserve the right to get decently drunk and to recognize a social game of cards, where money is not staked, as a necessary of our daily lives;
Ninth: we want no legal advice; no long winded set of bylaws, nothing but good fellowship and lasting friendships; and as the flume is all clear, we lift the head gate and start to work on discovery. 
The bylaws were signed by 30 members, all who had arrived in Montana on or before 1865; California on or before 1849 or Idaho on or before 1860.

The Kaiser's also had a saloon located at an unknown location in Philipsburg which they asked to build an extension onto in May 1893. The Board of Aldermen, after reviewing "ordinances No. 42 and 48, relating to the fire limits decided that the request could not be granted."

Michael died on January 29, 1903 at the age of seventy-six years one month and eight days. He had been ill for several days when John  took him to St. Patrick's Hospital in Missoula on January 17th. He was diagnosed with a bowel obstruction and they could not save his life. The body was brought home on the evening train and Michael was laid to rest on February 1 after a funeral service in the Kaiser House Annex.

Louisa had been in poor health for some time and declined rapidly after Michael died.  She succumbed to an intestinal stigmatism and heart failure on November 28, 1903 at the age of seventy-seven years, six months and eleven days. Her funeral was at the Kaiser House Annex and she is buried next to Michael in the Philipsburg Cemetery.

A Philipsburg Mail article on January 27, 1972 about Wilma Bruns, has memorabilia describing the Kaiser House "Bill of fare" from the late 1880's. They served such foods as "top sirloin steak for 50 cents, ham and eggs for 35 cents, pork chops, mutton chops, pig feet (plain or breaded), veal chops and others all at comparable prices"

John Kaiser, born in Marysville, California on August 18, 1857 arrived in Philipsburg in 1869, according to his obituary.  His obituary also stated they homesteaded the Kaiser ranch on Ross' Fork in 1904. This is in error as I have found references to the ranch as early as 1895. John married Jennie Suppinger in Highland, Illinois on November 20, 1889. To this marriage was born: Robert in 1890; John Walter on July 22, 1892; Edward on March 10, 1894; Mary in 1895; Jennie in 1897 and Harold on April 30, 1907.

John was an active community member which included serving  as Granite County Commissioner. His obituary states he served two terms but I was only able to find him winning against John D. Kennedy in 1916. He was also involved in supplying lumber for the West Fork Bridge in 1925, which was authorized by the County Commissioners, so maybe he served on the county road crew. His obituary stated he retired from public life in 1930. He died from a lingering illness at the family home on June 12, 1934. Pallbearers were his four sons and two son-in-laws: Frank Conley and Theodore Saurer. His brother Hermann was residing in San Diego, California at the time of John's death.

On January 17, 1895 The Philipsburg Mail states :
The Kaiser Brothers and Charles Williams, who own some valuable mining property on the north slope of Red Hill, just north of the Hope Mining Company's ground, this week resumed work by putting several men to work in their tunnel. A new blacksmith shop has been built and the equipment installed, which would indicate that extensive development of the property is contemplated. They have a vast body of iron ore carrying from 3 to 8 percent of copper and some silver values. It is one of the best properties in Flint District, and according to the theory of experts, has every indication of developing into a great mine. The property is situated two miles from Philipsburg.

I also found a news article dated July 10, 1914 stating:
Herman Kaiser at one time had a company partly organized to operate placer mines in Stony Creek and located about forty claims along its course. The project at that time called for a drain tunnel by means of which the water was to be drawn from bedrock so that shafts could be sunk and mining carried on by means of drifting along bedrock. The tunnel was to start at a low point north of the Wyman place and pointing south, cut through the hogback or ridge extending down to the Wyman house and into the channel of Stony Creek. For one reason  or another the project was abandoned, principally on account of shortage of funds.

I know that Herman was married and had a son Clifford who contracted Typhoid Fever in 1907. But most of the available history is about John's children.  John Walter know as Walt was involved with E. M. Poese in the Hardware business and was in partnership with Charlie Carpp at the Sapphire Mines on West Fork of Rock Creek in the 1950's. (Refer to the Sapphire article earlier on this Blog)

This article was adapted from "Mettle of Granite County" Book One pages 15, and 47 - 52.