Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One, Chapter Seven Part One (Civil War)

Chapter Seven

Patriots of Granite County: From Civil War through World War I

 

Civil War Veterans

The history of patriotism in Montana is well documented. Prior to immigration to Montana a large portion of the population was involved in the Civil War. This is apparent in the disagreement over the name of the first territorial capital.
 Varina was the name chosen by some of the Confederate sympathizer’s among the miners; even though they were far removed from the battlefields of the Civil War these men were, for the most part, intensely interested in the conflict and had definite allegiances. Since Jefferson Davis was as much a hero to those whose sympathies were with the south as Abraham Lincoln was to the others, it occurred to the town company to name the new camp after Davis’s wife. The papers were presented to Dr. Bissell (Giles Gaylord Bissell of Connecticut had been named Judge on June 12, 1863), whose sympathies were just as strong for the northern cause. According to the Bissell family legend, the doctor struck his makeshift desk and exclaimed, “I’ll be damned if I’ll sign it that way”. Crossing out Varina he substituted Virginia, allegedly with the further remark that “…no such blot as this shall stain the honor of the camp.[i]
 Other definite feelings, regarding the beliefs of the north and south, were apparent in the Montana Territorial Assembly of 1872. Section 34 stated: "The education of children of African descent shall be provided for in separate schools…"[ii]

Plus the Montana Legislature passed, without comment the following law:
Every white male inhabitant over the age of twenty one years, who shall have paid or be liable to pay any district tax, shall be a legal voter at any school meeting, and no other person shall be allowed to vote.[iii]
 The interesting fact is, individual opinion was allowed to be held, while the hardy individuals worked for the common good, of the land they were settling. Tombstones in the Philipsburg Cemetery, Valley Cemetery and newspaper obituaries, attest to the presence of military men living in Granite County, who served in the early military and Civil War:

 One of the first research found was John Jeffrey. He died at his home in Granite Thursday April 18, 1890 of inflammation of the heart. A native of Cornwall England he came to Canada as a youth. He married Emma Will (?? unable to read) 1878 and they had three children[iv]There is no mention in his brief obituary about serving in the civil war, but his headstone in the Philipsburg cemetery is a Veterans headstone.

Another early veteran was John Hart Williams, born February 16, 1842 near Richmond, Virginia (his death notice says Kentucky). He was the oldest of four children, but his obituary does not identify the names of his parents. His father died in 1848 and one year later his mother moved with the children to Missouri. At the age of nineteen, John enlisted in the Confederate Army and served throughout the war. In 1865 he came west across the plains and located in upper Deer Lodge valley where he took up a ranch on Racetrack creek and engaged in ranching and stock raising.[v]
He married Annie Butcher in Colorado in 1877 and they raised one son and two daughters. About twenty years before his death, they sold the ranch and moved into Deer Lodge, for a short time, then moved to Philipsburg, where he worked in numerous positions, in the mines of Granite County. During the winter of 1912/13, he suffered from pneumonia and was not well after that. Seeking medical care, he had traveled to Deer Lodge, in July and died there, on August 26. After a funeral at the Christian Church, he was interred in the Deer Lodge cemetery, on August 28. He was a lifelong member of the Christian Church; a Democrat; a member of the United Confederate Veteran’s and The Society of Montana Pioneers. Survivors were: his wife Annie of Philipsburg; daughter Miss Lucille Williams of Philipsburg; daughter Mrs. Harry A. Miller of Livingston and son Lytle L. Williams, an electrical engineer in Lewistown, Montana.
A veteran who was an active person in early Montana history was Reverend George W. Jenkins. Born September 9, 1836 in Minersville, Pennsylvania to English parents, he spent his early years in Jackson County, Iowa, then in 1861, enlisted in Company M, Second Calvary and served until 1864, in the Civil War. He married Sarah E. King on December 28, 1865, at Andrew, Iowa. Employed as a newspaper man, he was granted his license to preach on August 13, 1859. The family came to Montana in 1888, where he spent his first five years, in the Methodist pastorate in Philipsburg and Granite and erected the churches in both places, plus the parsonage in Philipsburg. He also conducted religious services at Rumsey during this time.[vi]
He was serving his second year, as Pastor in Marysville, Montana, when he died four days before his sixty fifth birthday, on September 5, 1901. The Reverend was a member of Burnside Post Number 22 Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.) and all the old soldiers of Philipsburg attended his funeral.
The Reverend was the father of six children. One daughter Mrs. G. S. Williams, preceded him in death in 1896. The other children were: Miss Cora, Wm. S., Mrs. D.R. McRae, Mrs. J.J. Carmichael, Miss Belle and foster-daughter, Mrs. C.M. Oates of Fairmont, Nebraska. His daughter Maria had married John J. Carmichael, at the Methodist Parsonage with her father presiding on December 31, 1896. Albert Tinklepaugh and Lon Gammon, from the lower valley, helped tend to the arrangements of the military service and served as pallbearers, along side of Lawrence Pence, L.C. Degenhart, J.K. Pardee, and J.A. Mathews, all G.A.R. members, at the internment in the Philipsburg cemetery.
Research of the newspapers found where Jenkins daughter Mrs. J.J. Carmichael of Seattle, came to Philipsburg to celebrate the fifty year anniversary, of the St. Paul Methodist Episcopal church,, in 1937. She stated that her father had built this church, and gave the roll call of all the pastor’s that had served in the church from it’s inception.  Her closing remarks were a brief summary of the contributions of each to the welfare of the church.[vii]
Of the pallbearers spoken about in the previous obituary, Gammon, Pence, and Matthews are not buried in the Philipsburg cemetery, nor is Pardee. But Joseph and Ruby (Schoonover) Pardee are buried there. They are the son and daughter-in-law of J.K.Pardee, and were married in 1904. Refer to the Ranches around Philipsburg in Book II, for more on their daughter.
Research reveals that J.K. and his wife moved away from Granite County about 1902.  Prior to that time I find that J.K. came to Granite in 1874, to look at property for Hon. A.B. Nettleton and gave such a positive report of the area, Nettleton paid off the bond he and his friends owed for the property and hired Pardee as the resident manager of the newly formed North West Company, located at Tower. He was elected Granite County Treasurer, January 1, 1897 and was one of the many Granite County residents, who volunteered for the Spanish American War.  Plus J.K. was a frequent topic in the Philipsburg Mail, in 1899, during the prospecting, promoting and development of the Iron Mountain and Iron Tower mines, in Missoula County. These mines were located east of Superior, opposite the mouth of Cedar Creek, at the big bend in Missoula River (Clark Fork).
Later that year, J.K. Pardee departed for Sumpter, Oregon, to give attention to the operations on the “Diadem”, a mine he had purchased. According to press reports Mr. Pardee was on his way to become a millionaire mine owners, because the Diadem was said to be one of the best mines, in eastern Oregon.[viii]
His wife Mary Pardee died at Gladstone, Oregon on March 25, 1914 after an extended illness, when over seventy years of age.  J.K. took his own life by shooting himself on May 18, 1914:
…due to a spell of despondency over the death of his wife only a month ago and to his defeat in the republican primaries last Friday for the nomination for county treasurer…
The obituary goes on to detail he was born in New York State, then came to Montana after serving in the Civil War in the 1860’s and settled in Philipsburg. Known as the most prominent mining man in the state at one time, he built the Algonquin Mill, at Hasmark, was a business opponent of the Granite Mountain Company and a man thoroughly respected by business associates and competitors alike. He was in charge of the Speckled Trout mine and had interest in various other mines in the district, with the most important (promotions), the Iron Mountain Company, of Missoula. In 1881, Mr. Pardee was a member of the Montana Territorial Council, and voted to divide Deer Lodge County, creating Silver Bow; served one term as Treasurer of Granite County, then moved to Missoula. In 1906, he was Postmaster at Plains being appointed by President (Teddy) Roosevelt. After one term, he retired, disposed of his property in Philipsburg and located at Gladstone, Oregon, where he has been engaged in mining and political interests. 

The obituary, also discussed his ardent republican views, describing his frequent attendance, in Helena, at the legislature. Survivors were: son Joseph T. who worked for the U.S. Geological Survey and hiss wife, in Washington, D.C. J.K. was believed to be about seventy two years old at the time of his death.[ix]
Another Civil War veteran spoken of in a previous paragraph was Albert Tinklepaugh.  Born in Canada June 8, 1845, he immigrated to the United States as a young child and resided in Wisconsin and later Minnesota. During the Civil War, Albert enlisted in Volunteer Company K of Minnesota and received an honorable discharge, at the end of the War. He came to Montana in 1880, located in Hall, first on a ranch and then due to poor health opened up a merchandise store, which he operated until a few years before his death. He was Postmaster of Hall and an organizer of the Granite County Bank, in Hall. He was President, of the Bank when he died on June 21, 1920, at his home.
Survivors were: his wife, a daughter Mrs. M.C. Ross of Philipsburg, a son, Freeman A., of Hall, a brother, Charles, of Hall and two sisters, Mrs. Duncan Dingwall of Drummond and Mrs. Ella Barker of Rollins, Montana. After a service in the Methodist Church, in Hall, Masonic services were conducted at the Valley Cemetery, by Ruby Lodge Number 36 A.F. & A.M., of. Drummond.[x]
Lawrence Pence, died November 14, 1916 of tubercular bronchitis after being ill several months. A native of Ohio, he was around seventy six years old. He was a veteran and member of G.A.R. but there were no record of the regiment or state he served from. A resident of Philipsburg, for about 15 years at the time of his death, he was a miner, had never married and had no relatives in the area.  There is no mention of where or how he was buried and there is no headstone or file card on record of his burial, in the Philipsburg Cemetery.[xi]
 A veteran spoken of frequently through out this Book is L.C. Degenhart. He was born June 13, 1843 in Dingelstadt, state of Prussia and came to the United States with his parents at the age of one year. They settled in Fountain, Wisconsin, where Lee joined the Wisconsin Volunteer Army when the Civil War started, and served in Company F of the Sixth Regiment as a Corporal under Captain Henry Schildts. He was honorably discharged on July 14, 1865 near Jeffersonville, Indiana, then returned to Wisconsin and joined in the harness trade with his brother Peter. In 1868, he started for Montana, by boat and traveled the Missouri River to Fort Benton, then followed a pack train to Helena and then on to Philipsburg. At the end of his trip he owned a saddle horse and twenty five cents in silver. He began farming and freighting between Helena, Philipsburg, Deer Lodge and the Bitter Root. Lee, married Mary Ellen O’Neil, the daughter of Hugh and Margaret O’Neil, on December 31, 1877, and was very involved in the building of Philipsburg, banking and business aspect as well as ranching. He owned and raced many horses and was frequently spoken of in the news papers as he raced his horses in Granite and surrounding counties. He retired from active ranching on his ranch a mile south west of Philipsburg in 1913, leaving his son Chris to run the ranch.
Lee was one of three remaining G.A.R. members. The other two were Robert M. Anderson of Hall and John Perriman of Drummond. Lee also belonged to the Society of Montana Pioneers. Mr. Anderson had visited Lee shortly before his death and they had agreed that whoever died first the other would carry the old post flag for the funeral. Unfortunately Mr. Anderson did not receive word of Lee’s death until Monday evening and was unable to get to Philipsburg in time for the funeral at 10 am on Tuesday March 31.
The cause of Lee's death on Wednesday March 25, 1922 was from injuries received when his horse ran away throwing him from his cutter and dragging him about seventy five yards. The accident caused him to break his hip and he received many cuts and scratches. The injuries occurred near the Post Office on March 8, 1922, and a number of people saw the accident and took him immediately to Dr. A.C. Knight’s office. On Thursday he was taken to the Missoula hospital.
Lee’s, last request was to have a military funeral and that request was honored well. His body was taken from the family home in South Philipsburg to the St. Philips Church were mass was said by Rev. D.P. Meade thence the body was removed to the Philipsburg cemetery where a firing squad under the direction of Leo H. McClellan, fired three volleys over the grave and Bugler John Burks, played taps.
The pall bearers were from the Granite County American Legion Post: George Johnson, Robert E. Perey, James Mazza Jr., Herman L. Hauck, John Schuh and Walter J. Gannon. The firing squad was Francis L. Perey, Bert West, Edgar Sprague, Otto McQuesten, Rod Huffman, Willis Belden, Angus McDonald and Napoleon Bergamaschi. The Spanish American War veteran’s attending were: Fay Easterly, Wm. B. Calhoun, Fred C. Burks and George Harris.
Survivors were: wife Ellen, sons, Chris of Philipsburg, Joseph who lived in Washington State and Frank who was a student at Montana State in Bozeman; daughters, Pearl who was attending University of Montana in Missoula and Mrs. Harold (Lena) Mitchell of Philipsburg, plus numerous in-laws from the O’Neil family.[xii]
His son Fredrick died November 9, 1920 at St. Patrick’s Hospital in Missoula following an operation, at the age of thirty one. Daughter, Lena Degenhart Mitchell, also died at a young age. Born in 1885, she died in 1929 and was buried in the Mitchell family plot in block nineteen. Lee is discussed in other chapters through out this book.[xiii]
The next to last G.A.R. member, Robert M. Anderson, born May 12, 1845, in Springfield, Illinois, entered the Northern Army December 29, 1863, as a member of Company A, the Seventeenth Minnesota Cavalry. He served with General Sully at Fort Benton Montana, was involved in many Sioux encounters in the Badlands of North Dakota and received an honorable discharge on April 2, 1866. After discharge Robert joined the Masonic Lodge of LeCrescent, Minnesota, which he belonged to for sixty two years. In 1866, he returned to Fort Benton, then Helena, then Henderson Gulch and became an expert in placer miner. Forty years, before his death he took up the career of rancher, near Hall, where he died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. James Conn, on December 17, 1928.
The marriage of Robert Anderson and Eleanor Madden was delayed a day due to a severe storm that detained Father DeRyckere, and was performed at the Fahey ranch on February 14, 1878. To this union was born seven children, of which three survived him: Mrs. Florence Laughrin and Miss Catherine Anderson, of Butte and Mrs. James Conn, of Hall. Other survivors were: brother William of Minnesota, half sisters: Mrs. L.C. Stockton of Colorado and Mrs. Effie Emery, of Hamilton Illinois, sister-in-law Mrs. Susan Kelly, of Missoula, seven grandchildren and two great grandchildren. Robert was a member of Lincoln Corpse Number 6, of the Grand Army of the Republic of Butte and the Society of Montana Pioneers. His obituary does not state where he was buried or anything about a military service.[xiv] Robert does not have a headstone at the Valley Cemetery.
At the time the first edition was written I was unable to find an obituary for John  A. Perriman, one of the last G.A.R. members, of the Civil War. His headstone in the Valley cemetery states he died at the age of 84 in 1929. Thanks to the "Find a Grave" website  the following obituary has been located and was printed in the Montana Standard, October 11, 1929. John A Periman (GAR) Co.I,2 Regstr, Mo.Lt.Arty. Born in Brighten, Missouri July 1845, joined the Union Military as a teen. Age 20 came to Montana and settled on a ranch near Jens. Married Miss Susan Margaret Treadwell (1851-1920) in 1866. They had 12 children. Survivors were: James living in Texarkana, Texas, Charles living in Middleton, California, Oscar (1877-1950) and Estella A. (1880-1942) both of Drummond, John B. (1885-1964) of Anaconda, Lucy J. Coughran of Conrad,  Laura E. Bunker (1892-1972), Daniel (David in Family history) (1889-1977) and Mrs. H. L. Harrison residence  not listed. Burial was at the Valley Cemetery. James and Charles do not have a birth and death date in "Find a Grave." Deceased children at the time of Johns death were: William Edward (1867-1868), Mary Lillian Hughes (1873-1897), Fanny Christine (1882-1912).
Francis Thomas, born in Pennsylvania in 1833, apparently was a young married man when he enlisted in The Union Army for the Civil War and was reported killed in action.  When the war ended he chose to let the record stand that he was dead and started for the west, with his arrival in Philipsburg, in 1871. The obituary stated he was eligible for a pension, but never applied, nor did he affiliate with the G.A.R. (Grand Army of the Republic). Family members are unknown but it was assumed he had relatives in Pennsylvania as he subscribed to a small town Pennsylvania newspaper. He died at his home, in South Philipsburg, on July 27, 1921 from infirmities of eighty eight years of age and after a service in the Carmichael Chapel he was interred in the Philipsburg Cemetery.[xv]
Joseph Case, who died on March 27, 1930 at the Soldiers Home in Columbia Falls, Montana, was listed as the last surviving G. A. R. Veteran in Granite County, in his March 28 obituary. Born in Flemington, New Jersey on May 4, 1846, he enlisted at the age of sixteen in the Union Army and served with Company C, as a Private, of the Thirty Seventh Regiment in the New Jersey Infantry, the duration of the Civil War. Several years after the war he began his trip to the west and in the late 1880’s settled on lower Rock Creek.
Joe and his common-law wife Annie had a homestead on Rock Creek and the story about it is discussed in the Rock Creek chapter in Book II. The obituary stated he sold his ranch to J.W. Meyers, about 1920 and moved into Philipsburg. Because Joe “Jack” was an ardent sportsman he was known as "Fisher Jack from the Hogback." On Memorial Day of 1929, he was the last surviving G.A.R. in the area, so carried the Post Colors and participated in the Philipsburg Parade. Little is known of his family in the east, except for a niece Mrs. Eliza Case who lived in Brooklyn, New York. If her name was still Case, she must have been a niece-in-law. In the Tex Crowley photograph collection is a picture of Joe, Oscar Perey, Jack Meyers and Joseph Firth. Joe is of small stature with a trimmed white beard. The homestead property has been preserved as a historical site and is under the protection of the Missoula Forest Service.[xvi]
Eilisee E. Thibault was a Corporal in the 192nd Ohio Infantry and died May 3, 1920. The obituary listed a daughter Mrs. L.P. Conway of Philipsburg and two sons: Eugene of California and A.A. residing in Oregon. There was neither birthplace nor age listed in his obituary. Also no headstone in the Philipsburg Cemetery or file card at City Hall for any Thibault. Because I catalogued the Philipsburg cemetery before writing this book, I have come to the assumption that many veterans are buried there as paupers, so do not have headstones or file cards. Apparently at the time of their deaths the American Legion was not aware of their service.[xvii]
J.H. Loomis, died March 24, 1914, in Philipsburg and his obituary listed him as a member of G. A. R, but there is no mention of his service during the Civil War in the document. He was born at Saundersville, Mass., on November 7, 1840, was a resident of Philipsburg for about 25 years; a carpenter by trade but being in poor health for a number of years he abandoned his occupation. Elected City Treasurer on 1906, he served four successive terms in the office. His wife died at the age of seventy two on March 17, 1912. By his request, the Selish Tribe Improved Order of Red Men performed the burial rites. Pallbearers were: W.B. Calhoun and Thomas Gorman of the Spanish Veterans and M.D. McDonald, James Sundberg, Rod McRae and Charles Sprague of the Red Men.[xviii]
Elijah Powell served his country throughout the Civil War as a member of a Pennsylvania Regiment. He received an honorable discharge, with membership in the Burnside Post No. 22 G.A.R of Philipsburg. Born in Chippewa Township, Beaver County, Pennsylvania on September 26, 1845, he died on December 4, 1899, with survivors: wife (Mary E.), daughters, Lydia Linguist, and Sadie Barrett of Butte; and sons, Charles and Edward of Philipsburg. He worked as a stone and brick mason and when that trade became dull he worked as a miner, until his death from pneumonia. The family resided in the Rosalind district when they arrived in Philipsburg in July 1880, after traveling west via the Missouri River. No pallbearers are listed, when he was interred in the Philipsburg Cemetery.[xix]
John A. Spencer, a resident of Montana from 1892, collapsed and died while waiting on a customer at his store on lower Broadway on March 1, 1921. Born in Boone County, Indiana on April 9, 1844 (tombstone states 1840), he moved with his parents to St. Paul when he was seven years of age. His first trip to Montana was in 1865, when he became a resident of Virginia City, for nineteen years and ran a mercantile store. I assume this was right after his discharge from the Civil War, but his obituary does not refer to his military service. Next he lived in Butte, where he also had a mercantile business, for three years then returned to St. Paul, for two years, after which he returned to Butte. He moved to Granite the next year and in 1892, moved his business to Philipsburg.
John, served as Master of both the Virginia City and Philipsburg Mason’s and was a city councilman, for two terms. He was survived by a son Clarence C. who recently came from Wallace, Idaho, to assist in the family business and a sister Mrs. J.S. Yallop, in California. Masonic services were held at the Temple and the Philipsburg cemetery.  Pallbearers were: Angus McDonald, A.S. Huffman, Lawrence Hauck, John Kaiser, Otis Mersereau and Frank D. Sayrs.
Although nothing is said in his obituary about a wife, his marriage announcement was in the New Northwest:
 Spencer-Welsh: At Highland August 25 1875, at the residence of the bride’s father, by Rev. R.G. Prout, Mr. John A. Spencer to Miss Hattie Welsh of Highland.
There are no other Spencer names in the Philipsburg cemetery so possibly Mrs. Spencer, died prior to John’s move to Philipsburg.
Research reveals frequent, small ads in 1895 Mail, stating:
John A. Spencer, near N.P. depot, will take hay and grain in exchange for wagons, carts etc.[xx]
Norman Alexander Eddy, born August 14, 1848, died November 21, 1917 in Parkerville, at his daughter, Mrs. Hanley’s home. His trade was as a carpenter and was repairing a home, when he died of probable heart failure. Born in Canada, he came to the U.S. as a small child to live in Pennsylvania. He had lived in Philipsburg with his daughter for only a short time. A member of G.A.R., he displayed the Stars and Stripes of his adopted home conspicuously in his home.
He was preceded in death by his wife, survivors were: daughter Mrs. Hanley and Mrs. E.J.M. Williams, of Hall. The funeral was conducted at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Burks (long time friends of Mr. Eddy), with pallbearers: R.D. McRae, J.A. Harding, H. A. Murphy, W.E. Albright, Frank Lindsay of Hall and Roy Sprague. L.C. Degenhart a G.A.R. Veteran was honorary pallbearer, with burial in the Philipsburg cemetery.[xxi]
During preliminary research, I did not find an obituary for, John Hendrickson Sr., but found one for his son John Jr., a Corporal in Co. E, Thirty Seventh Regiment, who drowned on February 24, 1900, in the Philippines' while serving for the US in the War with Spain. The article stated that he was twenty seven years of age and survived by a father, a sister and several brothers, residing at the fathers wood camp, four miles west of Philipsburg. John Jr. has a headstone in the Philipsburg Cemetery.
While delving for another fact at a much later date, I found a very short obituary in the February 1, 1901, Philipsburg Mail, for John Sr. that stated his funeral had taken place on Sunday, January 26, 1901, with services at the City Hall, by Rev. H.G. Wakefield. GAR, Firemen and City and County officials attended the funeral and the Philipsburg Silver Cornet Band led the procession to the cemetery.
The obituary did not state a cause or date of death, nor list living relatives or pallbearers. There is no headstone with John Sr., or a file card in City Hall for his burial, but there is a headstone, south of John and Samuel and next to Viola, inscribed Hendrickson, with the first name unreadable and no dates.
Thomas Long, born in 1839, died at the home of his relatives in Galena, Illinois in September, 1917. A tinner by trade, he operated a tin-shop in Philipsburg, for many years before he settled a homestead, on Cow Creek, several miles from Hall. He was a G.A.R. veteran and often entertained his small friends with stories of the battlefield.
The Mail article goes on to state that he had a very large collection of valuable curios and for every specimen he had a story to tell. Tom's funeral was at the Catholic Church with Rev. Father Meade attending and he was buried in the Philipsburg cemetery with the following pallbearers: Frank Winninghoff, M.E.H. Gannon, James J. McDonald, Matt Manley, Patrick McGurk, and Barney O’Donnell.[xxii]
Rodney Charles died November 21, 1917 of erysipelas after a short illness. Born June 1, 1843 in Stow, Maine, he lived in Pennsylvania until his wife died and his daughter, Mrs. H.C. Peterson, brought him to live with her in Philipsburg.
He was a veteran of the Civil War; a great reader and student and was generally liked by all who knew him.
The funeral was conducted at his daughter's home and Methodist Rev. W.H. Calvert conducted the service. Pallbearers were: E.P. Ballard, Frank Beley, J.W. Holmes, George Cape, C.A. Russell, and John Ingman. Survivors were sons: Horace Charles of New Mexico and Perley Charles of Arizona and his daughter Mrs. H. C. Peterson.
J.A. Matthews, I know was a Civil War Veteran, but I have been unable to find an obituary of his death. He is discussed through out these chapters.
Paul A. Fusz, described in depth in the Sapphire chapter, born in Hericourt, France in 1847 to Francis H. and Marie Regina (Tachaen) Fusz, was brought to St. Louis Missouri when he was six years of age. He and two friends ran away and joined the Confederate Army when he was seventeen. He and one of the friends were caught by the Union Army while smuggling quinine and valuable papers for the confederates and they chewed up the papers rather than give them to the Union Army. The friend was hanged, but because Fusz was only seventeen, he was sent to Jefferson City Prison. “One of President Lincoln’s last official acts was to pardon Fusz”.
Fusz lived in Granite, Montana from 1889, until shortly before his death, when he returned to St. Louis, for medical care of his pernicious anemia. He was president of the Bi-Metallic Mining Company which included the American Gem Mining Company on West Fork of Rock Creek. Burial was in Calvary Cemetery, beside his wife, who had died 20 years prior, in the family plot in St. Louis, Missouri, on February 18, 1910.[xxiii] Paul is spoken of in other chapters and discussed in depth in Book II in the Sapphire Mines Chapter.
Charles Weitfle died in the Masonic Home in the Helena Valley, on January 20, 1921.   He held the title of being one of the oldest Mason’s in Montana. Charles, born in Germany on February 15, 1826, immigrated to the United States, in 1850 and served in the U.S. Navy with an honorable discharge in 1859, then served in the Civil War in the Union Army. He was a noted photographer and received medals for work he did for the Union Pacific Railroad, while working in Central City, Colorado. He moved to Granite at the peak of the silver boom in 1892, then, in 1899 he became a bee keeper in Idaho Falls and continued this career until moving to the Masonic Home in 1914. He was the Master of the Granite Masonic Lodge for one term. Although survived by several children and grandchildren, there were no names listed in the obituary. Charles is memorialized, by his publication of Views of Granite and Philipsburg and Vicinity[xxiv], and is spoken of in other chapters of this book.
William Irvine was a miner and prospector and at the time of his death worked in the mines over thirty years with his good friend G.B. Ballard. Born in Davis County, Missouri in 1842, he served in the Confederate Army and died from complications of asthma and dropsy at the county hospital, on Tuesday evening, August 13, 1901. Funeral services were conducted the next day by Allison and Sherman Undertaking Establishment.[xxv] There is no headstone or file card in the city hall for his burial so he must have been buried, in the pauper section of the Philipsburg cemetery.
Theodore R. Hess, according to his grandson T.R. “Bus” Hess was in the Union Army. The story goes: 
he was sent west during the Civil War to help fight an Indian uprising. During a losing skirmish, Hess saw an Indian scout and a squaw within range. He killed the Indian, but could not find it in him to shoot the woman and when he turned to look for the others in his troop, the squaw shot him in the hip with an arrow. Narrowly escaping, he found what was left of his outfit that had been cut off from the main body of soldiers and were on their own. After they spent four days without food, someone found an antelope and killed it. When reunited with the Union Army, Hess’ hip was determined to be a permanent injury, so he was discharged, in 1865, at Denver.[xxvi]
He lived first in Deer Lodge, then operated a saloon in Pioneer and finally homesteaded in 1910 in Antelope Gulch in Section 24, T5, NR 15 W. The family is discussed in the Amerine Chapter in Book II. T.R. “Bus” Hess had his grandfather’s Civil War discharge papers, but during the time of his divorce the papers became missing and no one has seen them since.
Frank D. “Sandbar” Brown also served in the Confederate Army in the Civil War.  Because he was active for many years in Granite County I have spoken of him at intervals in this chapter; in Book II the Sapphire Mines Chapter and in depth in the Rock Creek Chapter, where I covered his Civil War period as well as much of the other colorful episodes in his life.
Henry “Hank” Snyder, who died at the age of ninety five, in a Missoula Hospital after an extended illness on August 4, 1928, was a resident of Montana for more than fifty years. He was born in Germany and immigrated to America, sixty eight years before his death. He served in the Civil War and received a government pension. Hank came to Western Montana looking for gold in 1878, and spent many years prospecting in Garnet and Bearmouth. The funeral services were held in Missoula at the Marsh and Powell Chapel, August 6, with internment in the Missoula Cemetery.[xxvii]
George Terrell came to Montana after the Civil War and lived in Philipsburg for about thirty years before he got into an altercation with John Ryan in the Philipsburg Brewery Saloon, and shot and killed him, on January 7, 1895, shortly after noon. The story goes that:
Ryan, who had been drinking heavily, went into the saloon and requested Terrell give him a drink; Terrell refused him and an argument followed. Eye witnesses say the two men were talking rather quietly together near a billiard table in the saloon when Terrell told Ryan to get out of the house; Ryan paid no attention to the request and Terrell stepped into the back room and got a shotgun; coming back with the gun in his hands he again told Ryan to leave the house and almost at the same time the gun was discharged and the entire charge entered Ryan’s face, just above the mouth, passing upward into the brain and killing him instantly….Since his confinement in the jail Terrell has become very despondent and has said that no one felt worse about the tragedy than he does….(He) is about sixty years old and a veteran of the late Civil War. About three years ago he was attacked with rheumatism, which had incapacitated him from active work, and those who have known him for many years say he has grown old very rapidly of late and for some time has not acted naturally. John Ryan had also resided in these parts for several years and was known as a hard working man, but was most disagreeably abusive and quarrelsome when influenced by alcohol. When sober, however he was quiet and inoffensive. He leaves a wife and eight children, and to them the sympathy of the community is extended.
The coroner’s jury, composed of F.A. Taylor, James McDonel, J.C. McLeod, Conrad Wipf, M.E.H. Gannon and M.E. Edwards, returned a verdict in accordance with the above facts, and George Terrell will be tried at the next term of court. [xxviii]
I am unable to find the outcome of this shooting.
Samuel Sprague, a pioneer of the Flint Creek district became ill the second week of December and although everything possible was done, he died December 11, 1899, at his home in Tower “of catarrah of the stomach and capillary bronchitis”. Born in England June 5, 1835, he came to the United States when he was twelve, lived in Wisconsin until the Civil War. Then, enlisted in the Second Wisconsin Volunteers and served with them through out the war. He married Miss Katherine (Catherine) Smith in Wisconsin in 1866 and one year later they moved to Missouri. After five years, Samuel followed the mining rush to Nevada and then Utah, and in 1877, came to Montana. He was a member of the Burnside Post G.A.R. The remains were brought from Tower, to his daughter, Mrs. James Patten’s home and the funeral services were conducted from there on December 14, by Rev. J.B. Butter.
Survivors were: wife Katherine (Catherine) and eight children-- three daughters: Mrs. James (Luella) Patten, Bessie (Elizabeth) (age fifteen) and Grace Sprague (age nine); five sons: Will, Charles, Frank, Leroy and Edgar. Pallbearers were: L.C. Degenhart, J.A. Matthews, J.S. Axtell, A.L. Castle, A.H. Hawes, and Rev. G.W. Jenkins. The family is discussed at length in the Businessmen, Merchant and Miners Chapter of this book.[xxix]
Bernard Dougherty, a gentleman that spent many years prospecting on the upper tributaries of Rock Creek died August 19, 1916, in the parlor of Mrs. C.S. Congdon’s rooming house, in the Wilson Block of heart failure. Mr. Dougherty, born in Ireland, lived in Granite County, for 25 years and was sixty eight years old. He owned a large amount of property on Ross’ Fork of Rock Creek. According to stories, told by Howard Naef to Bus Hess, Bernie had the mine just past the corduroy, on the road going to Medicine Lake. He was a member of the George G. Meade Post of the G.A.R, but no information was available in the obituary about where he joined the Union Army or when he came west. His body was taken to the Mahoney Undertaking Rooms, in Anaconda and a funeral with Requiem High Mass was performed at St. Paul’s Catholic Church, on August 23. The obituary does not identify a cemetery or what service was performed graveside. There were no known survivors.[xxx]
John Buhler, spoken of in Book II in the East Fork Chapter, related to an article in the October 4, 1901, Philipsburg Mail, that discussed sheep herders, was also a Civil War veteran, but I have not found his obituary, or where he was buried.
Although stories say, Foster Smith and “Crab Apple” Jack Carico, were veterans of the Civil War, their ages do not support this assumption. The Union and Confederate influences probably came from the previous generation, telling them stories.
By no means do I believe the above mentioned veterans were the only Civil War members, who lived and died in Granite County. They are just the ones that I know of, and are spoken of here as a representation of the counties’ patriotism.
An interesting article was published in the March 23, 1900 Philipsburg Mail concerning the Federal Expense of the Civil War:
Number of federal soldiers in the service                        2,688.523
    Killed in battle                                                 61,326
    Died during the war                                         371,063
    Wounded in the war                                        275,175
    Died of wounds                                                 34,727
    In hospitals                                                      149,000
    Died in Confederate prisons                            22,615
    Died in Andersonville prison                           13,715
    Captured by the Confederates                         200,000
    Confederates captured by the Federals            220,000
     Battles and skirmishes of the war                       2,861
    Soldiers discharged for disabilities                   222,535
    Major-generals killed in battle                                   12
    Generals killed                                                           64
    Colonels killed                                                           69
    Cost of Federal Army to government                                       $6,189,929,908
    Cost of the Vanderbilt ship given to the government               $1,000,000
    Amount of freewill offerings                                                   $5,000,000
    Aside from the amount of Christian commission                        $4,500,000
    Amount to secure volunteers by states etc.                              $285,941,036
    Whole amount of cost                                                             $1,486,370,944

Other Military men

Captain Thomas Lyons died at his daughter, Mrs. J.T. Jessie Pritchard’s home, on February 12th at the age of eighty eight years. Born in Troy, New York, on November 14, 1830, he was a world traveler and served in the United States Navy. Married to Miss Jennie Crawford, in Glasgow, Scotland in 1885. (This must be an error and is probably 1855.) They had eight children of which two survived him: Mrs. Jessie Pritchard of Philipsburg and Mrs. J. Rhoda of Sullivan, Michigan. When he was discharged from the Navy the family settled on a farm in Michigan where his wife died in 1875. After his wife’s death he settled in Montana where he homesteaded near Bonita. His grandson B.E. Reynolds was serving in the United States Army. The funeral took place at 2 o’clock on February 15 with Rev. Calvert officiating, with burial in the Philipsburg Cemetery.[xxxi]
Colonel George W. Morse, a resident of Drummond and the valley, earned his title Colonel, during the Spinet Lake massacre by the Sioux Indians in Minnesota. Governor Rumsey called for volunteers to subdue the Indians and eighty young men answered the call. A company was organized and elected Mr. Morse as the Colonel. Born in Maine, he arrived in Montana in 1862, prospecting for gold near Deer Lodge. He then moved to Orofino, Idaho and engaged in mining there, before returning to Montana, in 1865. He spent time mining in Helena, Mercer and Elk Creek, before purchasing a ranch at New Chicago and becoming a cattle rancher. He continued full time ranching until 1914. The Colonel continued some interest in ranching, even after selling a residence, and 320 acres for $65,000 in 1919.
The Colonel was remembered as the first presidential elector from Montana and cast his vote for President Harrison. He served as president of the Society of Montana Pioneers, in 1915 and also served as a Deer Lodge and Granite County Commissioner. The Colonel attended the Chicago Convention as a delegate and nominated Roosevelt for president in 1912. He is discussed at length in the early history of Philipsburg and Granite County.
Death came from the infirmities of age at eighty four, on December 9, 1922, at his home in Drummond. Survivors were his wife, and sons George W. of Drummond and Averill P. Of St. Ignatius. After a funeral service, at the Drummond Methodist Church, the Colonel was interred in the Valley cemetery on December 11. Pallbearers were: A.S. Huffman, Stephen Norton, J.E. Meyers, C.C. Corlette, Leslie Like and Freeman A. Tinklepaugh.[xxxii]

Nez Perce Battles

As one reads the copies of the newspapers, the pride of the population in representing our country and protecting our freedom is very apparent. The New Northwest, Granite Star, Citizen Call and Philipsburg Mail, are the ones available at the Montana Historical Society. As evidenced in the individual chapters of this book, many of the people participated in both national and local military needs.

The New Northwest, August 10, 1877, named forty nine individuals, from the Philipsburg and Granite County area, who organized, when the band of Nez Perce Indians, under the leadership of Chief Joseph, were announced to be headed toward Montana. Twenty volunteers, from The Philipsburg Co. B First Battalion, under the command of Captain J.G. McLean, were the only volunteers, actually in contact with the Nez Perce during what is called Fort Fizzle.
In the book, An Elusive Victory, author Haines stated:
The Editor of The New Northwest says that Captain Rawn put them (the volunteers) into the abandoned rifle pits, and so, kept them free from danger, and literally denied them a chance of becoming better acquainted with the refugees from Idaho. That was just as well, as the Philipsburg men were armed with muzzle loading Civil War muskets.
These twenty volunteers, provided their own gear and rode their own horses to respond to the call for arms, when Chief Joseph was reported crossing the Bitterroot divide. The discussion stated:
While the main column of Nez Perces was crossing the trail, the company of volunteers from Phillipsburg (sic), under Captain McLean, marched up to the Indian cavalcade, and actually passed through the heart of the Nez Perces, minus knowledge of them being the Indians they came to annihilate.
Editor Barbour  of the Missoulian, later made a point of noting emphatically that of the fifty eight armed men who answered his call for help and reached Missoula that Saturday, “only twenty--the Phillipsburg (sic) company--were ever at Rawn’s barricade”.[xxxiii] Rawn’s barricade was what is now known as the famous Fort Fizzle.  An editorial in The Missoulian, August 17, 1877, stated:
 Col. Jenkins, of Philipsburg, who was in the camp all the time of the passage, an intelligent man, of wide military experience, says he did not see that Rawn could do anything but what he did do--hold the camp.
The men of Company B, First Battalion, Philipsburg, regularly sworn in and organized are listed in the August 10, 1877, New North-West as: Captain J. McLean, First Lt. J.K. Pardee, J. Arthur, W.T. Allison, Second Lt. D.B. Jenkins, John Caplice, John Duffy, T. Baier, H. Horton, H. Lamb, G. Ternic, A. Lock, T. McKay, S. Lablain, J.H. Price, B.P. Tilden, J.M. Merrill, John Ulery, John Westfall, C.V. Timmons, T.O’Conner. J.K. Pardee is described in a previous paragraph and John Duffy and T. McKay’s life are covered in chapters of Book II.
Also listed in this same newspaper, is an Independent Company, from Philipsburg, named as: T. Ryan, N.B. Ringeling, G.W. Morse, H. Gilbert, J. Billings, H. Showers, John Price, C. Gath, A. McRae, J. A. Matthews, (no initial) Fisher, A. Bradshaw, L. Darrow, M. Jones. G.W. Morse and J.A. Matthew’s, obituary are documented in a previous paragraph and the McRae and Bradshaw family’s, are spoken of in another chapter. The article also lists volunteers from: Willow Creek-George Calderwood and D.G. Morse; Sawmill- J. Catching; Rock Creek- A. Elliott; Silver Lake- E.Barker, Hammond and Bennett.                     
The March 29, 1890, Granite Mountain Star, had the obituary for George Hammond, who probably was the Silver Lake volunteer. He died at his parent's home after a five month illness, on March 22.
Although George was but forty years of age he was numbered among the pioneers as he came to Montana with his parents in 1865 and has since resided in Deer Lodge County (Granite county was not born until 1893)…He was a natural athlete and at one time claimed the worlds championship for the fastest sprinter for a distance of 100 yards, having covered the distance in the remarkable time of 9.0 seconds…He was acknowledged to be one of the best horsemen in Montana and has ridden some of the most notable and closely contested races that occurred in the Northwest. He also served in several official capacities with efficiency and credit to himself and others. He leaves a wife and little child, Maude; father, mother, four sisters and one brother to mourn the loss…His sisters are Mrs. Joseph A. Hyde, Mrs. E. McDonel, Mrs. William Coleman, and Mrs. W.J. Matthews. His only brother resides in Wisconsin.
The services were conducted on March 24, by Rev. G.W. Jenkins and the pallbearers were: John G. McLean, John Duffy, Frank D. “Sandbar” Brown, James Riley, A.A. McDonald, and Henry Browning.[xxxiv]

Eighty two men volunteered and are listed in the Philipsburg Mail, May 13, 1898, when the call came for the need for troops in the Spanish American War. Many of these individuals were in the middle and late years of life but were quick to step up to the National Cause, as patriots.
The volunteers were: Walter W. Kroger, George W. Suppiger, W.I. Power M.D., S.A. Swiggett, Eugene Smith, Wm. B. Calhoun, C.T. Capron, J. W. Opp, N. H. Connolly, Bert Tarr, Alex Berthoud, Jay Gould, John H. Cole, James Vallely, Burr Roberts, Joseph Orr, M. E. Edwards, E. B. Hyde, O. F. Featherman, August Greenheck, Lockie McDonald, Andrew Simpson, J.K. Pardee, John Walton, Bert Northey, G.S. Wilson, Thomas Hickey, Wm. Johnson, Edgar Ballard, Joseph Bradshaw, Henry Schnepel, Julius Hanson, J. L. Blockwood, Frank Lamont, Jo. X. Bryan, Peter Gallagher, M. B. Scott, George Burks, A. M. Barnes, F. F. Grimes, Jonas Cook, O. J. Quivey, Si Pence, P. J. Neff, James Lee, L. J. Dubrule, George Amerine, E. A. Cralle, W. J. Fisher, L. J. Moffatt, Sam Snyder, J. V. Loomis, Dan McGillis, Theo. Smith, L. A. Bullard, J. E. Northey, John Page, Vincent Doody, S. J.  Clarke, W. B. Wilson, E. H. Ryan, Malcolm McDonald, W. J. Sprague, James McKenna, W. E. Castle, T. Maley, J. Cummings, Samuel Sprague, Frank Gerbil, Wm. Berthoud, J. E. Wagerly, J. A. Ballard, A. R. Dearborn, J. T. Kelly, S. V. Bowman, George Winninghoff, J. S. Huffman, G. Harmison, John Neu, A. S. Huffman, J. J. Carmichael, Angus Johnston, and John A. Smith.
In the Montana, Adjutant General’s Office, Records at the Montana Historical Society, are records of a: William Johnson enlisting on April 28, 1898, in Butte, Montana, as a teamster. He was discharged, in San Francisco from the First Montana Infantry Company F on October 17, 1899, as Quartermaster Sergeant at the age of thirty two. He was born in Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania.
I did not find W.J. Fisher, but a William P. Fisher, enlisted in Anaconda on May 1, 1898, as a brakeman. He was discharged in San Francisco, from the First Montana Infantry Company M., as private on October 17, 1898, at the age of 32. He was born in Euganee, MI. I also found where a Williard D. Fisher, enlisted in Virginia City, on May 1, 1898 and deserted on July 1, 1898.
Two John Smiths, enlisted in Anaconda, in April and May of 1898. One listed his occupation as a waiter. He was discharged in Manila from Company M. in 1899, with the promotion from private to a corporal, at the age of twenty three. He was born in New York, NY. The second was a private with Company K., and a laborer, discharged in San Francisco, October 17, 1899.
There are no other names, similar or matching, of the Philipsburg volunteers, in the archives. There are reference to Fay Easterly, Fred C. Burks, George Harris and Thomas Gorman, being Spanish American War veterans, during various articles in the Philipsburg Mail, in 1922. Obviously they moved to the area after the war was over.
Another noted resident of Granite County, who served in the Spanish American War, was John R. Page. Born September 12, 1880, at Harrisburg Missouri, he came to Granite when he was eight years of age. He was married, December 18, 1906 to Gertrude Wickersheim of Corbin, Montana, in Boulder, Montana. They set up residence in Philipsburg after the wedding and lived there until his death. John was a mine boiler inspector, until his retirement. As a Democrat, Mr. Page, served Granite County, as a State Senator for six terms. He also served on the City Finance Committee according to the Philipsburg Mail, May, 1920 and was serving as town Judge, for Philipsburg, when he died. He belonged to the Silver Post VFW, the AF&AM Pearl Chapter, Order of Eastern Star and the Presbyterian Church.
John died at his home while getting ready for bed, on December 22, 1956.Survivors were: his wife; son Perry Page and his wife of Salt Lake City, Utah; daughters and spouses: Mr. and Mrs. Glen Taylor Vancouver, Washington; Mr. and Mrs. Taylor (Mamie) Baker of Spokane, Washington; and Mr. and Mrs. Bert (Doris) Kingery of Greenough; and brother Vatis Page and his wife Birdie of Philipsburg. Funeral services were performed by the Masonic Temple and Pallbearers at the Philipsburg Cemetery were: Earnest McLaughlin, Jack Courtney, Everett Doe, Dr. L.R. Nesbit, Joe Beretta, and C. M. Huffman. Graveside services conducted by the VFW.  He was preceded in death, by son John Jr., who died July 31, 1933. The family is discussed in depth in an earlier chapter.[xxxv]
The obituary for Fred Schultz stated he was a veteran of the Spanish-American War.  He resided in Philipsburg for about ten years prior to his death and lived in the Big Hole valley for thirty years, prior to coming to Philipsburg. Masonic services were performed at the grave-side, after his death October 3, 1945.
References are made on occasion in the news paper about young men being in the military, after the Spanish American War, such as Herman Kamiske, who wrote to John Kaiser, about his service in the Boer Army. Mr. Kamiske, a well known miner at the Hope and Bi-Metallic, traveled to South Africa, to work in the Gold fields in 1894. At the time of his letter written November 15, 1899:  
He was five weeks into the war and…according to the English, they were going to be in Transvaal in three days, but things have taken a different turn. Instead of the English coming up here, the Dutch have gone into the English country and have beaten the English troops in every battle they have fought. If Mr. John Bull had known what was in store for him he never would have started this war; but it is live and find out.
Herman goes on to describe how much smarter the Dutch are than the English. Such as seizing all of the gold in the banks and the mines, plus they took possession of all the horses, wagons, harness, boots, shoes, clothing and food. The Dutch worked the mines and gave the owner’s receipts for the work done.
If the Dutch lose---well the property owners have the paper; if the Dutch win, the owners will get their pay for everything. In fact it is the smartest trick I ever heard of.
He continued on to say that there were a number of men from Butte and from every country in the world, but that the main army was made up of German’s. I found no other letters from Herman, or an obituary.[xxxvi]
A letter from George Seelos, serving on the Battleship Oregon, was published in the Mail, on August 17, 1900. The battleship went onto a rock off the coast of China a few weeks before the letter was written and gives the following account of this mishap:
 On June 24th the Oregon left Hong Kong for Taku and all went well until the 29th. A very dense fog was hanging over the sea. The sun was not visible and the navigator of the ship was unable to get his bearings. During the afternoon he dropped anchor and intended to wait until the fog had raised. The ship had just anchored when the fog began to raise and in a short time the order was given to weigh anchor and we again started our journey. The ship had not gone over a hundred yards when she struck the rocks and stopped short. The first night all hands were up and ready to abandon the ship at any moment, because she began to settle at the starboard side. She staid (sic) above water that night, but was generally settling. The next morning the gunner’s mate went down as a diver to ascertain the extent of the injuries. He reported a rip in the plates about twenty feet long and from one to eighteen inches wide. A steam launch was then dispatched to the nearest port to summon assistance, and a working crew with divers, pumps, and other appliances arrived during the day and started to work that night. We worked day and night for four days. On the evening of the fourth day two English steamers, which had been sent to our assistance arrived. On the fifth day the Oregon was pulled off the rock, but through some misfortune we struck another one. This however did no further damage to the ship’s bottom, although we stuck fast for three more days. At noon on July 5, she floated herself and our captain and those of the other steamers wasted no time in getting the great battleship in a safe place. Now we are in shallow water and the divers are at work patching up the hole in the ships bottom so she can be taken to the dry dock at Yokosuka, Japan. This is 700 hundred miles distant, but is the nearest dry dock large enough for this ship. After we come out of dry dock I expect to see the blue jackets go to the firing lines and join in the march on Pekin. While it is no pleasure to be shipwrecked, we lost none of our courage in our misfortune, and while the Oregon was fast on the rocks we captured the first prize--a Chinese cruiser. It was a fine boat---just the kind our government needs.
The mail reaches me regularly and it seems like meeting an old friend when reading the news from my old home. I hope to be able to visit in 1903, providing the China men do not do away with me. Best regards to all.

Endnotes
[i]  Pace, D, .Golden Gulch, 1962, pp.16-17.
[ii]  Schmurr &Toole, Historical Essays on Montana and the Northwest, 1957, pp.150.
[iii]   ibid.
[iv]  Granite Mountain Star, April 19, 1890.
[v]  Philipsburg Mail, August 29, 1913.
[vi]  Granite Mountain Star, August 16, 1890.
[vii]  Citizen Call, January 6, 1897; Philipsburg Mail, September 13, 1901, November 12, 1937.
[viii]  Wolle, M.S., Montana Pay Dirt, 1963, pp. 234-254.
[ix]  Philipsburg Mail, April 3, 1914; May 22, 1914.
[x]  ibid, June 25, 1920.
[xi]  ibid, November 17, 1916.
[xii]  ibid, March 10, 1922; March 31, 1922.
[xiii]  ibid, November 11, 1920.
[xiv]  ibid, December 1928.
[xv]  ibid, July 29, 1921.
[xvi]  ibid, March 28, 1930; May22, 2008.
[xvii]  ibid, May7, 1920.
[xviii]  ibid, March 27, 1914.
[xix]  ibid, December 8, 1899.
[xx]  ibid, March 4, 1921; New Northwest, September 3, 1875; Philipsburg Mail, January 17, 1895.
[xxi]  ibid, November 23, 1917.
[xxii]  ibid, September 14, 1917.
[xxiii]  ibid, February 18, 1910, copied from the Anaconda Standard, February 7, 1910.
[xxiv]  Date of publication unknown.
[xxv]  Philipsburg Mail, August 8, 1901.
[xxvi]  Hess, 2006; Philipsburg Mail, November 1, 1912.
[xxvii]  Philipsburg Mail, August 8, 1928.
[xxviii]  ibid, January 10, 1895.
[xxix]  ibid, December 15, 1899.
[xxx]  ibid, August 25, 1916.

[xxxi]  ibid, February 14, 1919.
[xxxii]  ibid, December 15, 1922.
[xxxiii]  Haines, A.L., An Elusive Victory-The Battle of the Big Hole, 1991, pp.21-34.

[xxxiv]  Granite Mountain Star, March 29, 1890.

[xxxv]  Philipsburg Mail, December 28, 1956.
[xxxvi]  ibid, January 12, 1900.


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