Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Chapter One

The first book of this History series is sold out so I have decided to post it on this blog. Areas that have been further researched since it was published in 2009 are either updated or linked to articles on this blog or internet that provide further information. If as you are reading an area is highl;ighted, click on the highlight and it will take you to more information.                                          




                                           METTLE OF GRANITE COUNTY
                                                           BOOK  I
 DETAILING THE LIVE’S OF INFLUENTIAL PIONEERS, POLITICIANS,BUSINESSMEN AND MERCHANTS IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE COUNTY PLUS ALL THE COUNTY PATRIOTS THROUGH WWI


                           LORAINE M. BENTZ BAKER DOMINE


 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Map……………………………………………………….3

Early history………………………………………………4-7

Churches…………………………………………………..8

Cemeteries…………………………………………………8-10

Lodges and Organizations………………………………...10-11

Some Pioneers……………………………………………..11

Bradshaw………………………………………………….12-13

John Ulery…………………………………………………13-14

George Plaisted……………………………………………14-15

Mining Camps……………………………………………..15-16

Cable………………………………………………………16-18

Granite and Philipsburg……………………………………18-25

Newspapers and Politics…………………………………...25-27

Education………………………………………………….27-34

From Mining Camp to City………………………………. 34-35

McDonel………………………………………………….. 36-41

Royal………………………………………………………41-42

Hammond………………………………………………….42-44

A.A. McDonald……………………………………………44-48

Endnotes…………………………………………………...49-52




                                                                (Map To be added later)






                   Map of major landmarks, creeks, towns, and Post Offices in Granite County
                                     Pen and Ink drawing by Loraine Domine  2012

                                              CHAPTER ONE 

The early history

 To provide the reader a framework I will present a background on the establishment of mines, camps, businesses and the organizations needed to create communities. Then, city and county creation and the politics involved will be explored. Lastly, some of the individuals that provided the Mettle of Granite County will be discussed in depth. 
The discovery of prosperous mining as discussed in the introduction was the reason for most of the settlements in what is now known as Granite County. Shortly after the Hope mine was located, the Poorman’s Joy, the Trout and the Algonquin were discovered. Then the town of Tower, also known as Troutville and Stumptown, sprung up. The Northwest Company, controlled by Charlemagne Tower, A.B. Nettleton and other capitalists from Philadelphia built the Northwest Mill to treat the ore brought out of the newly discovered mines. 
The Northwest Company came about because A.B. Nettleton after meeting J.K. Pardee in Cottonwood, Utah convinced him to travel to Montana to look at mining property he held a bond on. They arrived at Philipsburg after a 700 mile stage ride and Pardee inspected the mines on Trout Hill, which included the Speckled Trout. His report was so satisfactory that Nettleton and his friends paid off the balance due on the bond, they held. The bond worth $151,000.00 and other eastern capital was used to form the Northwest Company, with Pardee made the resident manager.(1) 
This occurrence resulted in the mill being built in 1875 and the camp of Troutville (Tower) grew up around the North-West Mill. The camp housed miner and mill workers with a boarding house and a storehouse, but there was no liquor sold in camp ( 2)..
 Within a short time the Algonquin Mill was built at Hasmark, just one-half mile from Tower. Hasmark had a post office from April to August 1880 and then from 1892 through 1897. Samuel Silverman was the postmaster. The name Hasmark was derived from two important men: H. A. Styles and Markle. According to Cheney, by taking the initials of Styles; HAS, and adding these letters to the first part of Markle they arrived at the name Hasmark( 3). Hasmark was short lived but Tower was important to the population even as late as 1918, when the Granite County Board of County Commissioners called for bids on May 20, to build “…new Tower Cliff Gulch Road 8,000 feet in length.”(4).
 Even earlier than Tower and Hasmark the mining camp of Philipsburg had come into being. The New Northwest, in August 1885 described how on June 13, 1867 the town of Philipsburg was laid out and by the winter 250 houses had been erected and at least 1,500 people lived there. Lots were being sold for enormous prices. One livery stable lot cost $1,200 and the owner built a $7,000 structure on it. The Masonic Hall cost $6,000. Numerous structures were built with lumber that sold for $100 per M in gold, with the other materials just as expensive (5).
The settlements that sprang up around these mines and mills were sparse of convenience and comforts. A good description of the living conditions was published in the following letter:
 Lewiston, Illinois, July 31, 1905; I have been contemplating to write you for some time. You of course will not know me but I hope some of the old settlers will, if any are left after years of toil. I made quite a little money there. When I went up to Philipsburg, it was not much of a town, nothing but a mining camp. There were no women there. I had some cows and a horse. I built myself a shack on the side of the hill and it was the first building of any kind there. The men lived in tents and in holes dug in the hillsides. I peddled milk to them and would gather up their laundry and take it home to wash. I got twenty five cents a piece for shirts and I sold thirty dollars worth of milk a day. Two holes cut in my shack served as a door and window and I hung a blanket up to each. I slept on poles stuck through the shack and pine boughs thrown on them and a buffalo robe over them; that was my bed. I had no pillow. The roof of the shack was made of poles and pine boughs and dirt thrown on top and I cooked by a log. Now mind there was not another woman in the camp or within twenty miles of me. When I relate this story here now they ask were you not afraid of the men? No indeed, God Bless the miners, a better class of men never lived. I was treated like a queen. I lived there until fall and then took my cows and horse to better range for the winter. By that time the camp had been laid out in lots and had quite a good many buildings and the town had been named after the man who laid it out. If I knew that you would appreciate it I would give you my history from the time I arrived in Montana. I will say this much, that after all my hardships and after having many cows and horses, and a ranch, a schemer came along, he was the Pony Express man, and persuaded me to marry him. Then the first thing was to sell out and take the money in gold dust and come to my old home where I now live. Perry sent the gold dust to Philadelphia to have it minted. As soon as it arrived, $18,000.00, he took it and skipped and I have not heard from him since. This was thirty years ago, and now I am seventy five years old and have nothing left but my old hands to make a living with. I will send you a copy of my marriage certificate. It reads as follows: Territory of Montana, County of Deer Lodge S.S.; The undersigned, Justice of the Peace, did on the 27 day of January A.D. 1868 join in lawful wedlock L.S. Perry and K.C. Coykendall with their mutual consent in the presence of Henry Adams and John H. Bell. Signed John B. Van Hagen, Justice of the Peace, Philipsburg Township, Deer Lodge County, Montana. Will you please answer this letter and tell me what that town is and if there is anyone left that knew me. It would give a great deal of pleasure to a poor old forsaken woman. (signed) Kate Perry (6). 
 Unfortunately, there was no follow-up to this article as to whether any one remembered her. An indepth discussion that researches her life is on the granitecountyhistory.blogspot.com, titled Kate Perry.

 Miss Clara D. McDonel discussed the early history of Philipsburg at Pioneer Days, May 1927. She stated the greatest time of prosperity for the camps of the Philipsburg Quadrangle was from 1881 to 1893. This included the above mentioned mines and Granite Mountain, which by then had passed to Charles McLure. This was the beginning of the ore bodies being discovered for the Bi-Metallic, Combination, Pyrenees and Cable mines (7)

 In 1865, Hector Horton had founded the Cordova Mine and two years later the population was listed as 700. Notice this number is one-half the population cited by the New Northwest, in a previous paragraph. In 1870 Deer Lodge County was second only to Lewis and Clark County with a population of 4,356 people (8).

While the miners were busy locating and digging the ore, it was necessary for someone to supply food, merchandise and entertainment to these hard working men. In short order the families also came to stay and first cabins, then houses were built with towns actually surveyed and streets platted. In Philipsburg, William Weinstein, set up the first merchandise store; a man named Dean started the first boarding house; Dick Dickenson and Johnny Gerber opened a saloon; Daniel Stewart and Company opened a store; also a gentleman named French ran a store; Dr. Merrill set up shop with supplies for the sick and infirmed; Billy Lang ran a bakery and saloon; Henry Inkamp, John Rains, M.O. Regan, and Angus McIntire had saloons; C. Etheridge built twenty seven cabins, during the first season; Wm. Hammond and Company ran a livery stable and built wagons and caskets; Harris and son Tony were shoemakers; Captain Plaisted, also ran a boarding house.  Please refer to this blog site for an in-depth discussion about Hector Horton, his mines and his miner friends (9).The New Northwest, referred to Henry Inkamp as running the finest saloon west of Deer Lodge(10).


Other businesses that opened in Philipsburg in the 1870’s described in news articles were: a furniture store owned by Allison and Sherman; Dr. C.N. Bowie was a pharmacist and ran a drug store; Caplice and Smith owned a grocery store; M. Kaiser and H. Hynes opened two hotels; Charles Kroger opened a brewery; John Opp was a barber; Dave Simmons was the Postmaster; A.A. “Red Mac” McDonald ran a butcher shop; W.C. “Billy” Bradshaw also had a butcher shop; Tom Botscheider started a carpenter business; Mrs. E. McDonel opened a millinery and notions store; George Cartier and Ed D’Celles were butcher, both in Granite and Philipsburg and William Coleman ran a jewelry store (11).


Churches

Churches were an integral part of the early fabric, with the first Protestant service being in the dining room of the Plaisted Boarding House by a Rev. F.A. Riggins, who was a traveling minister for the Methodist Church, in 1875. Then in 1880 construction began on the Episcopal Church, with lifetime support and involvement by the Kroger and Hauck family(12). Shortly thereafter the Catholic and Presbyterian Churches were built (13). St Philip’s Catholic Church was built on land donated by A.A. “Red Mac” McDonald. Construction began in 1887 and the church was dedicated on September 30, 1894 in a service given by Reverend Bishop John Brondel (14).

Construction of the Methodist Churches began in 1887. Reverend George W. Jenkins spent five years in Granite and Philipsburg and was responsible for the erection of both Methodist Churches, before he left Granite County in 1888(15).

Early tradition was churches were built on the north side of Broadway. This was where the name “Church Hill” came from. The saloons were always located on the south side of Broadway, which is where all the liquor establishments still were until the Philipsburg Brewery opened in the old Sayr’s Building on the corner of Broadway and Sansome, in 2012. Reverend Jenkins is discussed in depth in the Patriots Chapter and because his daughters married influential Granite County men, they are discussed through out this book.

Cemeteries

 A definite need for every community was a cemetery. Granite being high on a very rocky mountain was unable to bury their dead near by, so the deceased were brought to Philipsburg to be buried. I am uncertain where the people of Georgetown were buried. Cable has a small family cemetery, and a Chinese burial site. Emmetsburg has a monument erected for the unmarked graves there. The details of this monument are discussed in Book II in the Rock Creek Chapter, under the life of “Sandbar” Brown(16). M.S. Wolle stated Black Pine did not have a cemetery, because the residents perferred to be buried in the 'Burg, so the miners could suspend work for the day and were allowed by the Miner's Union to accompany the deceased to the cemetery

 An interesting fact was the Philipsburg cemetery was “jumped” according to the March 14, 1889, Philipsburg Mail. Fortunately, William Bradshaw immediately went to work and raised several hundred dollars so the property could be bought outright.  In the article, the Mail, stated “...no more persons will try jumping the graveyard. The man named Moiles, who did the jumping, was acting in conjunction with a couple of our residents who claim the honor of being respectable citizens”. The article continued, with the statement the area would be enlarged with a substantial fence put around the twenty acres, so there will be enough ground to serve the community for "all time to come”.

Next, I found a cemetery meeting advertised for June 15, 1889 and the June 20, Mail, stated W.C. Bradshaw, had successfully obtained title to the grounds. At the meeting a resolution was written by Frank D. “Sandbar” Brown, G.V. Sherman, Chairman and J.G. Marony, Secretary, stating Bradshaw would be paid all sums it cost him to secure the ground from Mr. Moiles. The news article also stated F.D. Brown, C.M. Crutchfield and H.C. Dodge were appointed as the Bylaws Committee (17).

Prior to the above incident I found a court action where Joseph A. Hyde sued Wm. Moiles on default of defendant judgment rendered for the plaintiff in the sum of $836.09 (18). Research failed to reveal an obituary for Mr. Moiles.
 In regards to the ongoing history of the cemetery, there was a notice posted in 1896, that stated:
 Cemetery Notice: Notice is hereby given to the general public that the entire management of the affairs of the Philipsburg cemetery is vested in the City of Philipsburg. All persons should make application for graves to the city treasurer, Julius Hanson, to whom the fee must be paid in advance. The city will also have charge of the digging of graves, which charge will also be collected by the city. Signed David Pizer, City Clerk Office, Opera House Building (19).
 In the City Council meeting of February 5, 1900, W.A. Jones, was appointed sexton, upon the recommendation of the cemetery committee. He had been sexton previously but had left the city and only recently returned. The clerk was instructed to advise him of his reappointment. 20 Roy Hamilton retired in September 2006, after filling the sexton position for more than twenty five years. His family is discussed in Book II. Larry Veis took over that position until 2016. At the time this chapter is being revised there is an ad in the Philipsburg Mail for a Foreman-Maintenance Caretaker for the cemetery (21). Roy died at the Granite County Nursing Home on May 13, 2015, shortly after his 98th Birthday.

 Lodges and Organizations 

Lodge affiliation was a very important part of the settlements, with the A.F. & A.M. Flint Creek Lodge chartered October 7, 1867. It was one of five lodges chartered at the Montana Annual Meeting held that year in Virginia City. Only Flint Creek and King Solomon of Helena were still in existence in 1951. The Flint Creek Lodge had twenty four members in 1869.22 The I.O.G.T Band of Hope Lodge No. 20, was organized November 3, 1876 and Cable Lodge No. 9, was the ninth Lodge to be founded (23). The Philipsburg Pioneer Association was founded in 1880 and included pioneers that had arrived in Montana on or before 1865; California on or before 1849; and Idaho on or before 1860 

The Order of Red Men was an early organization but I am not certain the date of inception. Charter members of this Lodge arrived in the area prior to 1889. The Woodsmen of the World was another active organization as were the Order of Eastern Star and Pocahontas. The Churches had active organizations that provided assistance to families in need during the mining recessions. The Philipsburg Women’s Club was a very active group during WWI and as discussed in the Patriots chapter the Red Cross fostered an active county association. The Sons of Herman and The Odd Fellows are other organizations spoken of through out this book

The Philipsburg Pioneer Association was founded in 1880 and included pioneers that had arrived in Montana on or before 1865; California on or before 1849; and Idaho on or before 1860. At the founding meeting there were nine bylaws adopted by the members. Here I will quote two:
Sixth: we reserve the right to get decently drunk and to recognize a social game of cards, where money is not staked, as a necessary of our daily lives;
 Ninth: we want no legal advice no long winded set of bylaws, nothing but good fellowship and lasting friendships; and as the flume is all clear, we lift the head-gate and start to work on discovery. 

These bylaws were signed by the following pioneers: John Merrill-1848 California, John Rains-1849 California, John G. McLean-1850 California, George Plaisted-1850 California, Henry Imkamp-1856 California, M. Kaiser-1852 California, Eli D. Holland-1856 California, D.B. Anderson-1855 California, G.V. Sherman-1858 California, Daniel Session-1848 California, John Kaiser-1857 California, Angus McIntyre-1863 California, Mrs. Louisa Kaiser (I assume her date is the same as John’s), J.H. Monhart-1869 California, Wm. Hammond-1865 Montana, A.A. McDonald-1864 Montana, M.S. Caplice-1864 Montana, C.N. Freeman-1864 Montana, James McDonel-1864 Montana, Herman Kaiser -1865 Montana, David Simmons-1864 Montana, Frank D. Brown-1863 Montana, Joe Stahl-1863 Montana, Geo. E. Tyrriell-1865 Montana, Dan C. Morgan-1851 California, Sim Shively-1850 California, John W. Hall-1863 Montana (24).  Individuals from the above list whom I was able to find information in news articles and other documents, are discussed both in this chapter and others fitting their careers and politics, as they continued contributing to the mettle of Granite County.

 A photograph of the document is in the Tex Crowley picture collection, in possession of LouAnn Fessler Sichveland.

Some Pioneers 

One of the above pioneer signatures John Rains, according to his obituary, was married to a sister of A.H. Porter, in 1882. I have been unable to find her first name, although her initials are listed on their children Minnie and Johnnie’s tombstone as H.E. A.H. Porter is discussed in depth in Book II. John Rains, born in Norway, died at the age of seventy seven, in Golden. He was vigorous until a few minutes before his death,on February 20, 1896, when he suffered a pain in his side and in a few minutes was dead. John immigrated to the United States in 1849 and settled in California. He moved to Philipsburg in 1865 and resided in the area, working in various enterprises in which he made and spent several fortunes (25). 

According to his obituary the marriage produced seven children, with six of them and his wife buried in the Philipsburg cemetery, prior to his death. Unfortunately, only two have headstones and none have a file card at City Hall. Johnnie died at the age of five months on January 9, 1884 and Minnie died at the age of seven months and twenty three days on January 3, 1885. At the time of John’s death his only living daughter aged six was living with the George Brown family, formerly of Philipsburg, in Anaconda. The daughter had lived there since the death of her mother and was expected to inherit the estate. John’s body was brought to Philipsburg on February 22 and his funeral was on the 23rd with internment beside his family, in the Philipsburg cemetery. The obituary does not list any pallbearers. 

I found a reference to a John P. Rains, who took a two year lease on the Populist Mine, located about fifteen miles from Deer Lodge, while he was living in Butte (26) but have no idea if they were related.

 Bradshaw

Prior to the cemetery incident, W.C. (William) Bradshaw was mentioned when he was a witness in the murder trial of E. Reed, who killed Eugene Garland. The incident is discussed in Book II, in the Amerine Chapter. Also, the newspaper noted when he was the proud possessor of the prettiest baby boy in all the territory, which made improvements to his business house (27). 

There was a law suit filed by W.C. Bradshaw, against J.W. Morse and it was scheduled to be heard on March 21, 1896 (28).  But I did not find any follow-up about the case, so maybe it was settled out of court. W.C. Bradshaw was Chief of Police and Poundmaster when the newly elected City Council took over the reins of government in 1904 (29). 

W. C.’s, son Joseph‘s obituary, was published when he died at the age of forty five, from an attack of neuritis. This was similar to an attack his wife had died from in June. In the article it stated the family had moved from Philipsburg about twenty five years prior, to Butte, which would have been about 1902. According to the previous paragraph they left after his election in 1904. Joseph worked for five years before his death at Armour Company in Butte. Survivors were his mother Margaret and brother Arthur, of Butte. Joseph is on the list of men who volunteered from Granite County for the Spanish American War, as the newly elected City Council took over the reins of government, in 1904 (30). According to Joseph's obituary, his father W.C., born in 1847, died in 1926, and the article credited him with being a pioneer of Montana, one of the first butchers and one of the pioneer cattlemen of the state (31). Although research did not reveal William's obituary, he is buried in the Philipsburg cemetery.

William's wife, Margaret, came to Philipsburg by stage in 1878 and shortly after married William. Born in 1850, a native of County Kerry, Ireland, she immigrated to America as a small child. The family, first lived in Chicago, then made their way to Utah by ox team and lived there for several years, before coming to Montana. According to her obituary, they moved to Butte about 1903.  Margaret died in a Butte Hospital, on October 18, 1928. Survivors were: one son, Arthur, who was manager of the Western Meat Company in Butte. Requiem High Mass was performed at St. Patrick’s Church, in Butte, on October 20 and following the service her body was to be brought to Philipsburg, for interment in the family plot (32). 

Another Bradshaw obituary found in 1919 was F. A.’s (Frank), who would have been fifty six years old the next month and was born March 17, 1863 in Michigan. The father of eight children: two of whom were from a first marriage, but the names are not listed, except Horace who was in the service and stationed at Camp Lee, Virginia. The obituary did not note  where he was buried, but one would assume it was in Plains, Montana, as that was where the family lived the past thirteen years. The news article stated he was a prominent member of the Methodist Church and that the funeral would be held on Sunday, so the absent children could attend (33).

 I also found where:
 Frank Bradshaw’s delivery team hitched to a milk wagon ran away Tuesday noon and took quite a spin until they were caught in Degenhart’s lane. The team was frightened by a horse with a blanket running loose on upper Broadway. As they ran up the grade past the Ringling residence, through Rosalind addition, and down to Parkerville, they crossed the railroad track several times without ever turning over a milk can. No damage was done to either team or wagon. J.J. Carmichael took after the runaway on horseback but came near having a runaway himself and had to abandon the chase. He was unable to control his horse and had to jump off in order to prevent colliding with the runaway team and to bring his own horse under control (34).

Plaisted

The Plaisted boarding house spoken of in the early history section, was actually ran by Mrs. Plaisted who kept an excellent house and with John Ulery at the desk, guests received good attention (35).   As described in a previous paragraph, Captain George Plaisted was the owner of one of the first boarding houses and a number of mills in the area. George was born near Newburyport, Maine on March 13, 1821 and lived on a farm near the tidewater. Disliking school, he ran away early. Probably about the age of nine and hired out on an ocean going vessel. While en-route he transferred to another vessel which was commanded by an uncle and thus was returned home. He continued running away but because he had three seafaring uncles was always brought back home. Finally his father realized he was not going to complete school and let him learn the trade of millwright. George was sent by his employer to Cuba where America was entering into the sugar beet trade. His employer used his proficient millwright skills to build not only the first but seven more mills, before George returned to the United States. On his return trip several of the crew members became ill with a fever and when no one was able to manage the boat, George took over the post of captain and safely navigated the vessel back to Maine. This was how he came by the title of Captain which he was called through out his life (36 ). 

Captain Plaisted left Maine and traveled to California where he built mills on the Pine Tree and Josephine mines. Next he moved to Nevada and worked at the Comstock, where he was awarded a gold watch and silver service for his expert mill construction skills. In 1866, George left Nevada and moved to Helena where he constructed and operated with a man named Truett, the Plaisted and Truett Ditch, used for placer mining.

 In the fall of 1867, he became associated with William Nolan, of the banking house of Nolan and Weary, of Helena. Next, he took a contract to reduce 10,000 tons of ore from the Atlantic Cable mine at Cable. George built the Plaisted and Nolan quartz mill at Cable and operated it until the mine caved in, prior to the end of their contract. With the cave -in came a great amount of litigation. Both the banking company of Nolan and Weary and George Plaisted ended up poor men. 

During the time George was at Cable running the mills, his wife operated the boarding house in the ‘Burg. After the cave-in he lived the rest of his life around the Philipsburg area and died January 13, 1900. His funeral was at his residence on the south side of Philipsburg. He was laid to rest between his wife and two small sons, in the Philipsburg cemetery, on January 15. Mr. Plaisted is covered in an article on this blog site. 

Ulery

As stated above John was the desk clerk at the Plaisted Boardinghouse. He was born in Pennsylvania, November, 1837 and emigrated at the age of two with his family to Ohio. There he resided and worked on the family farm until the age of twenty-one. He and a neighbor boy traveled to California and arrived there in the fall of 1859. The next year he moved to Nevada, then Idaho and in 1866 to Philipsburg (before there were houses). John lived in the area until his death November 19, 1909.

During the years he found many prosperous mines and sold them for thousands of dollars. He spent just as easily as he accumulated money, thus as he aged and could no longer mine, he had very little. He was helped by his many friends and lived a happy, if poor life, in his last years.  After he had suffered for many years of the disabilities of age, he was admitted to Mrs. Bulgar's Hospital, where he died.

Survivors were three sisters and a brother, who all lived in Ohio. Charles W. Calgin came to Philipsburg when the family was notified of the death ans made funeral arrangements. Mr. Calgin was the spouse of one of John's nieces. The funeral took place under the direction of Rev. J. G. Ross at the Methodist Church with internment in the Philipsburg cemetery on November 22. Pallbearers were: T.M. Parks, T.E. Carey, Harry Knatz, W.A. Smith, W.E. Albright and M.A. Caul.


Mining Camps

For one reason or another mining camps of Georgetown, Emmetsburg, Quigley, Pioneer, Gold Creek, Sunrise, Southern Cross, Red Lion, Combination, Black Pine, Princeton, and Rumsey had short lives. Hasmark, also known as Dunnville when Bill Dunn renamed it after he was elected the Mayor (37)  had episodes of activity related to the activity of the nearby mines. Cable and Granite had more documentation of their existence and I will discuss them in following sections.

Parkerville and Kirkville were separate towns with both having short lived existence as a separate town, although both continue to be described by their individual names, even though their mailing address is Philipsburg.  I have been unable to find any annexation for Kirkville. 
A special election notice was posted in the May 13, 1904, Philipsburg Mail, to submit the question to voters, as to whether the city limits of Philipsburg should be extended through Parkerville. The June 10, 1904, Mail announced an almost unanimous vote for the annexation, with only twenty votes against the measure,   The next step was for the people of Parkerville to take up the question and that was handled by the County Commissioners. In the same issue of the Mail, the Mayor was asked to file a petition with the County Commissioners to complete the annexation. The newspaper was instructed to advertise for the call of a one time bid for 3,000 feet of 4-inch 440 foot-head pressure pipe and two fire hydrants to be installed in Parkerville. 

The same issue of the Philipsburg Mail discussed an important consideration from the Granite Miner’s Union signed by C.A. McDaniel and other citizens of the city. They requested horse racing be allowed on Broadway Street on June 13. The Council referred the question to the Judiciary committee and it was agreed to allow horse racing on Broadway, during the Miner’s Union Picnic. 

Parker’s Addition, later known as Parkerville was named after W.R. Parker and prior to the annexation his daughter demonstrated the mettle that was the core of these settlements. The story goes that: 
Last Saturday afternoon, a tramp called at the residence of W.R. Parker, south of town and commanded something to eat. His youngest daughter Miss Emma was alone in the house at the time. She refused him and said she had nothing cooked and that she was alone in the home and did not want to be alone in the house with the man. He then pulled out a revolver and was going to force his way in, but the young lady who had been ironing, when he came to the door and still had the hot iron in her hand , struck him a blow with it in the face. He staggered and dropped the gun, which Miss Parker tried to get, but he recovered and grabbed it and ran off toward the creek. Parties were out all afternoon, but no trace of him could be found. If he had been caught things would have gone pretty rough with him. Miss Parker is a young girl about 12 or 13 years of age and has received many compliments for her presence of mind (38)
 Emma’s mother, Mary, died the year before on June 22, 1892, at the age of thirty seven years and twelve days. She was buried next to Emma’s sister Cora who had died March 15, 1892, at the age of eight years and one day. Her brother, Enos J. died October 16, 1879, at the age of five years and six months, the year before Emma was born. He is buried next to Cora. The headstones have statements as to their relationship to W.R. and Mary. Unfortunately, research has not revealed a record of W.R.’s death. 


Cable 

The mining property of Cable known as the Atlantic Cable Quartz Lode was located on June 15, 1867.(39) The name commemorated the laying of the second trans-Atlantic cable. The locators were Alexander Aiken, John E. Pearson and Jonas A. Stough. They were camped on Flint Creek and their horses drifted off. In tracking then to this vicinity the men found float that led to the discovery. Machinery for the first mill was imported from Swansea, Wales and freighted by team from Corinne, Utah, the nearest railroad point. The mine operated with indifferent success until 1880 when extremely rich ore was found. A 500 foot piece of ground produced $6,500,000 in gold. W.A. Clark, paid $10,000 for one chunk of ore taken from the mine in 1889 and claimed it was the largest gold nugget ever found (40).

M.S. Wolle visited the ghost town of Cable while researching her book," Montana Pay Dirt". She stated three cabins were then occupied and the woman at home said the ore averaged about $18.00 a ton. But when they would strike a rich pocket it would assay from $100 to $1,000 a ton. The woman also told Wolle the first mill was rigged with a steam boat whistle that could be heard for 12 miles, on a clear day. Wolle stated the next mill was built by Plaisted and was not a complete success. A large amount of gold was unable to be recovered by the amalgamation process and passed down the canyon. Even with the loss, $30,000 was earned within a one year period.

 As close as I can interpret the articles researched, Plaisted built the Mill, known as the Wm. Nolan Mill. The property where the mill was built had a mortgage originally owed by James Brown II. James was the spouse of Fannie Brown and the father of Alex and Alice. The mortgage owed was for $1,725.76 and is now known as the Cable property. Plaisted caused this mill to be transferred to Brown to secure the above mortgage. Then in 1875, the First National Bank of Helena filed a summons against a group including Fannie Brown, Alexander Brown, Alice and Daniel Welch and George Plaisted, for the mortgage originally owed by James Brown II (41).Next it appears that William Nolan, the Helena Banker, bought out the other parties to get rid of the lawsuits and mortgage. Unfortunately Nolan was not a skilled miner. He failed to properly timber the mine and in April 1869 the shaft, sunk to a depth of 148 feet, caved in and completely closed the mine. I found no record of miners killed in the cave-in, but I found evidence of numerous lawsuits (42) 

 During the next ten months, Nolan died and almost everyone left the camp. In 1878, it was reported there was only one inhabitant. As described in the paragraphs about Plaisted, litigation was extensive and drawn out in the Helena court system. J.C. Savery, a brother-in-law of Nolan after lengthy litigation secured the entire property and struck another rich body of ore in 1883. The story goes that he reimbursed his expenditures to the extent of $150,000 within thirty days. The total amount he was said to have mined up to 1891 was in the tune of three to four million dollars.  A short news article stated James C. Savery, owner of the Cable Mine died August 20, 1905, at his home on Cable Mountain. He was buried in Des Moines, Iowa (43). 

 Prior to Savery’s death, S. Daniels a resident of Cable had a house fire that burned his home to the ground. Everything but the kitchen range was lost. The family had removed many of their belongings a safe distance from the house when a keg of powder stored in the cellar exploded and ignited the articles already removed from the building. The loss was estimated at $1,500.00 (44).

Conrad Kohrs and Salton Cameron also worked a placer digging below the Atlantic Cable Mines, from 1871 through 1874. Kohrs constructed a ditch, costing $10,000 to work the placer and in the first year they washed out $18,000 in only eight weeks before winter set in. In the second year they earned $37,000. Then, in 1874, the water from the ditch Kohrs’ constructed was diverted to the Georgetown Placers (45).

In 1873, Salton Cameron also erected a twenty stamp mill, with financing from a Helena banker, named L.H. Herschfield. They made a lot of money because the gold lay at the grass roots. A one hundred ton lot of ore was worth $20,000, but his lead ran out and the mill shut down. During this same time period there were stamp mills operating at Southern Cross, Pyrenees, Twilight, Glenn, Gold Coin, Red Lion, Milwaukie, Hidden Lake and Stuart and these mines were responsible for the mining camps of Georgetown, Southern Cross, Gold Coin and Red Lion (46).
Reminding the reader of the time period all of this was occurring in I found an article of the time stating that settlers were still traveling to Montana by way of wagon. "Three families passed through Deer Lodge, driving mixed teams of mules and cattle from Green County Missouri, on their way to the Bitter Root"( 47).


 Granite and Philipsburg 

There have been a lot of books written about Granite, so I am only going to discuss the elements contributing to the establishment of businesses and the pioneers who were involved in this endeavor. 

The mining camp of Granite was resilient, surviving more than one mine closure. There were many merchants and numerous substantial buildings. Weinstein had a mercantile store and Cain and Thibault were Grocers in 1889 (48). Also bank branches were established and the D.J. Hennessey Store remained in Granite through more than one downturn in the economy. An article in an 1893, Philipsburg Mail stated: 
This firm was one of the first to locate in Granite and although the town had previous setbacks, they have staid loyally by and have not made a lot of money but also built up the confidence among permanent residents-a thing that cannot be attained by those who came here to clean up and get out-We hope for the Hennessey Company continued success and when Granite resumes its normal conditions again we predict for them and all other business men who staid with the town a greater season of prosperity than they have heretofore enjoyed. J.P. Sullivan was the store manager (49).
The story repeated in numerous articles was that a huge rush of people left Granite when the silver prices fell in 1893. Referring to Arthur R. Stone’s original article March 9, 1912 re-published in Following Old Trails: 
 it was one of the interesting experiences of my life that I was present during the exodus of the miners from Granite Mountain…There were not enough vehicles to transport those who wished a ride down the mountain and many of them walked; trunks were piled high upon great hayracks and shipped down to the railroad station; there were tears in a good many eyes, for Granite people loved their town (50).
 But I did not find him giving any numbers of those leaving. Researching the newspapers of the time, I found no report of an exodus, just a steady stream of people leaving to find another paycheck. On September 14, 1893, The Philipsburg Mail published a list of residents “who have gone away pending the monetary financial panic.” The list contained a total of eighty seven names. I do not know if the name listed represented an entire family or only the male of the household. 

Reading the newspapers of 1893, it was apparent there was a high level of anxiety before any actual word of the silver price crash. There was a run on the First National Bank, for $75,000, beginning Monday afternoon, May 21, 1893. Before I discuss the run on the bank I will speak about other incidents that occurred.

First, M.E. Doe & Co., served an attachment, enacted by Sheriff John Cole, causing the Standard Theater in Granite to be closed on May 4, 1893. The stated liabilities of owners Risch and White were $2,000 to $3,000 and F.T. Wilson held a $2,000 mortgage on the building. The article stated the sheriff sale would probably not realize much more than the mortgage (51).

 I need to advise the reader that the May 4, 1893 issue of the Mail is the first paper available for that year at the Montana Historical Society Research Library. Therefore the information I have may be less panicky than the population had demonstrated.

The following article seemed pretty upbeat:
 Hynes and Lynch continued work on the Puritan Extension and their prospect is looking better every day. Also, the Board of Aldermen and Mayor-elect Allison requested the businessmen of town to shut down their stores during the hours of the Memorial Day parade. Acting Mayor Ringling stated he would personally ask the business men to close (52).
 Then during the week of July 4, it was decided to cancel the Fourth of July celebration. The committee announced subscriptions would be returned to the donors, less the few dollars spent building the dance platform. The article stated the cancellation was due to the business depression, caused by the low price of silver (53).

 In contrast, The People’s Hotel, erected directly across from the Northern Pacific Depot, was opened the first week in July and a full column was written about the d├ęcor and convenience for the railroad clientele. The hotel was under the management of Albert Paquin a businessman known in the Coeur D’ Alene area (54). 

Also during this period, great hope was being expressed that Congress would pass a Silver Bill and control the price of silver. The papers discussed the various bills and legislators supporting them, but only in a vague way. Headlines and local legislator’s opinions were not published, contrary to the usual political vent on county and city issues. There was a small article published from a reader regarding the Windom Plan being superior to the Sherman Law, because the plan proposed using silver as a money basis while retaining gold as the sole standard (55).

Then, there was a small news article on July 27, 1893 that stated: 
Orders received during the week for closing Granite Mountain, Bi-Metallic, Combination and other mines in the district secondary to a slump in silver prices.
 Returning to the above mentioned run on the First National Bank of Granite, apparently a rumor began circulating in May that stated the “bank was unsafe and its doors were likely to be closed to its depositors”. How the report was started or what gave it any semblance of truth, the depositors did not wait to question but immediately began to draw out their money and before the hour for closing arrived several thousand had been paid out on time certificates. During Monday night the rumor spread like wildfire and when the bank opened its doors on Tuesday morning the eager crowd stood in line to draw out their money. The run was probably brought about from a rumor some two weeks prior, that Mr. Hyde transferred some of his stock in the First National Bank to Freyschlag, Huffman and Company, and after doing so he departed for a visit to the World’s Fair. Mr. Hyde was the President in both Granite and Philipsburg branches of the bank (56). 

Monday night, the banker’s ordered and received another $100,000 from Helena and were ready to give out all money requested, even keeping the bank open so the day shift could remove their money after usual banking hours. By Tuesday evening there had been $74,600 paid out, but during that afternoon people began returning to re-deposit their money and by Wednesday evening nearly “two-thirds of that taken out the day before had been put back on deposit”. 

Then in July published under the headline "Two failures", was a column that stated:
 Last Friday our people were surprised when the fact became known that the large mercantile firm of Freyschlag, Huffman & Co. had closed its doors. The firm assigned to James H. King, cashier of the First National bank, the cause being the rapid decline in silver values and the consequent stringency of the money market. It is said that the action was taken to secure home creditors. The store remained closed until Monday, when it was again opened under the charge of the assignee on a cash basis, since which time it has been running as usual. The excitement consequent upon the closing of this establishment had hardly begun when Saturday morning the still more startling disclosure was made that the First National Bank had suspended, and upon investigation this fact was found to be true, as a notice attached to the door testified. It stated that owing to the stringency of the money market, consequent upon the low price of silver, and the drain upon the institution it had been found necessary to close its doors for a time until matters could be adjusted. It has remained closed up to the present time, but it is the belief of the depositors that they will all be paid in full (57).
 By July 13, 1893, the bank was closed with an auditor showing that the total assets were $194,000 in Securities and $124,000 in deposits and “The stockholders claim positively that every dollar owed to the depositors will be paid in full, no matter what the outcome”. It was rumored that Freyschlag, Huffman and Company, comprised of Hyde, Freyschlag, Dr. J.M. Merrell and James Patten, who were the head of the Granite Bank, owed the bank $66,000, “but the truth of the matter is that the sum is only about $3,000.”(58).

 A short notice, printed under the Combination Notes, in the July 20, 1893, Philipsburg Mail, stated Freyschlag and Huffman had re-opened. The resumption was short lived and when the truth of the matter was disclosed it all came down to the buck:
 Freyschlag, Huffman and Company, was closed by attachment last Thursday night (September 28, 1893) and that extensive establishment is now in the hands of the sheriff. When the late crash first struck Philipsburg, this business, was temporarily suspended, but they managed to reopen about the first of August, by arranging for an extension of time on some indebtedness. The firm was heavily indebted to Hyde, Freyschlag & Co. the banking firm at Granite and owing to the failure of the First National Bank, in which the same parties as those connected with the Granite Bank were interested, and the subsequent and urgent request from the receiver of that institution for a realization of funds, the attachment was forced. It was preferred by Messrs. J.M. Merrell, Joseph A. Hyde, and James Patten, who composed the banking firm of Granite and who have claims against the store to the extent of $67,000 (59).
 In October, the big news was the entire stock and property had been bought by Josiah M. Merrell. Merrell paid, at a sheriff’s sale $17,500 for the stock in the Philipsburg store; $7,500 for the stock in the Granite store; $300 for eight horses and $2,000 for stock in a warehouse. The buildings and real estate were to be sold in about two weeks, and it was estimated that the total for all stock and buildings would represent not less than $200,000. The Mail believed the business would be re-opened by Merrell. I did not find the sale of the property published in the newspaper, so it probably remained in his possession until his death (60).

 In November, J.M. Merrel made  Frank Durand general manager of the store. Frank had been engaged in the general merchandise business in Granite and was also one of the principal owners of the store, before the failure. Mr. Durand had a reputation of being a careful and attentive business man and it was everyone's belief  that if there was any prosperity in the area, the store would flourish under his management. Frank is discussed in depth in Chapter IV (61).

 J. M. Merrell, known as Doc, died at his home in Groveland, California on April 28, 1913, according to a letter received by W. Kroger, from Merrell’s son. Kroger, the cashier at First State Bank had been looking after Merrell’s property. The article stated Merrell made fortunes out of Granite Mountain, when he sold it at $45 a share. The obituary stated he had lived in California, for the past twenty five years. The correct amount of time he lived in California probably was less than twenty years. The notice of death does not list his wife or children who survived him.

 During the period of the silver crash a wage issue developed at the Puritan Mine. The Union Secretary of Granite Miner’s Union notified all underground workmen that if they were receiving less than $3.50 a day, they were to discontinue work immediately. The mine manager, John McKechney informed the Mail that he was making no attempt to reduce union wages. Since the silver disaster had set in the workers had agreed to accept two-thirds of the union wage in cash and take a company certificate for the other one-third. This certificate would be redeemed by the company when the silver market was restored. The twenty men employed all had families and felt quite fortunate to continue working in the financial downturn ( 63).

Alluding to the financial situation, the Ladies Guild of the Episcopal Church stated they had helped at least two families who were in need and had set up a small fund to continue assistance for the families in need. They also stated it was known the people would not ask for help until forced to do so because of hunger. 

By November 1893 preparations were underway for the Bi-Metallic Mill to do considerable work during the winter. Apparently a vast amount of tailings had accumulated in the past four or five years while milling only for silver and they planned to re-work them once they had the necessary equipment (64). 

As this issue continued to be worked on by the mine manager, union leaders and the community, miners were sitting with out any work. Before long the Bi-Metallic employed twenty five men at $2.00 a day and the merchants of Philipsburg called a meeting to discuss whether or not they should get involved in the matter. There was much discussion, including town pastors explaining how business and wage earners run parallel courses and should not be interfered with by one and other. Finally the Knights of Labor explained they would assist any family that needed help, as they did not want anyone working for that wage. Needless to say, the men who had families with mouths to feed, saw the writing on the wall and knew if they were not wage earners they needed to become contractors. This way they would bear the risk as the mines could not continue to operate at the wages previously paid (65).

 Later in January 1884 the Bi-Metallic announced work was to commence immediately and they were awarding contracts for the opening of the drain tunnel. The first division of the drain tunnel was awarded to David Balentine & Co. to work a distance of about 2,075 feet. The grading contract for the Bi-Metallic Mill was awarded to George Metcalf. The contract for stone work of the foundation to the addition was let to Joseph Tiefenthaler. The machinery for the lixivation plant would be furnished by Fraser & Chalmers of Chicago. The second division of the tunnel would be worked by the company. Colonel Hart of the Bi-Metallic stated the local residents would be given preference over outsiders for the jobs (66).

Wages continued to be an issue through out the next decade. There were frequent intervention of union leaders such as J.C. Duffy of the Granite Miner’s Union and the Silver Lake Union, which covered the workers at Gold Coin, insisting that workers must be paid $3.50 a day (67).

In April of 1904, James Willoughby, the foreman of the Bi-Metallic for seventeen years, resigned. Shortly after Sam Arthur who was in charge of the tramway resigned. These resignations were followed by Dan Smith and William Willoughby. Julius Wiegenstein a former shift boss took over the foreman position ( 68). 

Then one year later, Granite Bi-Metallic officials announced the mines were worked out: 
Famous properties that have made many men wealthy are to be abandoned. Tracks and pumps taken up and workings left to fill with water. The long predicted end has finally come. Granite will be dead, in fact too dead to skin, but this is accepted as a matter of course. The announcement that the end has come is really a relief to everyone. In the meantime the business men and property owners of Philipsburg are not losing any sleep. They will go right on doing business as if the Granite and Bi-Metallic mines had never been known (69).
 Obviously, the writer of the news article knew the mettle of the population. Booms and busts continued for many more years and sometimes they included the Granite and Bi-metallic re-opening. 


Newspapers and Politics 

History would certainly be skewed if we only had oral accounts. I can attest, that almost without exception, the stories told to me by old timers, have when researched, been inaccurate, either in person, date or incident. Although I know written history is only as accurate as the person writing it, I have relied on written documents plus family history records, to put this book together. One must take into consideration the newspapers were owned and operated in the territory and state of Montana by politicians, political parties, labor unions and those with self interests, from the earliest days.

The New Northwest set up publication in July 1869 in Deer Lodge under the helm of Captain James H. Mills, as editor and publisher. It was a weekly publication until 1870 then daily through the summer of 1870 and 1871. There was a weekly edition during the winter months due to the uncertainty of the mails (70).

 H.C. Kessler had an interest in the New Northwest in 1873 and in 1879, John S. Mills had one-half-interest, otherwise Captain Mills was the sole conductor, from the papers inception in 1869.. This paper was the only publication for a number of years available to persons living in south western Deer Lodge County, before Granite County was formed. At the end of summer 1871, the daily publication ceased. The weekly, by then was in competition with the Independent. When the Gazette office in Helena burned the Independent moved to Helena, leaving the New Northwest the only publication(71). 

In 1885, the New Northwest employed five men and served 1,600 people and the company was valued at $8,000. According to the Citizen Call (72),  the paper ceased publication the week of June 14, 1893, but there are newspapers of the New Northwest on microfilm at the Montana Historical Society Research Library through April 30, 1897. Either the cessation was short lived or a false rumor, printed in the Call. 

The Philipsburg Mail (73),  a republican newspaper, began publication on January 28, 1887 under the ownership of Lombard and McCoy. Lombard then sold out to Mark Bryan at an unknown date with McCoy as editor and Bryan as manager. Next, McCoy was bought out by Thomas Congdon and the name changed to Bryan Brothers and Congdon. Between the August 31 and September 6, 1894 edition the name changed to “The Mail Publishing Company”. During 1897 the Mail carried the comment that M.H. Bryan was Editor and Manager(74). The next ownership change was June 1898 when the company name changed to The Firm of Bryan Bros. and Hauck (75), when Lawrence Hauck bought an interest into the company. In 1902, the Mail, became the sole property of Hauck and remained in his ownership until his death in 1923. His son Herman Hauck was business manager of the publication at the time of Lawrence’s death and took over the newspaper.

 According to family history Herman was unable to make payroll in 1930 and Roy Neitz, working at the Drummond site assured Herman it was alright (76). Research reveals, the section of the Mail listing ownership, stated Herman Hauck Editor-Manager through the July 12, 1929 issue. Then the section was removed of the Hauck name and the section was without a name until the January 9, 1931, issue of the Mail. This issue had the same letter head as previously with the line ROY A. NEITZ publisher added at the bottom, under the usual line stating “official Paper of Granite County”. The issue had been taken to court and the end result was Neitz became the owner of the paper (77).

 Roy Neitz then published the paper until his death in 1953. His wife and son Dean then took over the business. When Dean married Trilby Horrigan in 1955, they took over the publication and operated the Mail until 1992, when they sold to Patricia Broman Kane. Kane sold a short year later to Jim and Lee Tracy. They published the Mail, for six years and then sold to Brian Eder in 1999. Eder sold to the current owners “Philipsburg Mail, Inc.” in 2004. 

Careful review of the Mail, during 1929 and 1930 failed to disclose any article published regarding court notes or an announcement of the change of ownership (78).

The Citizen Call was the democrat newspaper of the late 1880’s and was owned and operated by Lon and Abe Hoss. I am not certain when the first issue was published, prior to 1893, but found where the name was legally changed to The Philipsburg Call, in 1901 and continued publication through 1905. The paper had been known as the Philipsburg Call to the locals as early as 1897 (79).

 The last news articles found about the Hoss family, was when Lon Hoss became ill and resigned his position as personal secretary to the Governor. He had served in the position for five years by February, 1906 (80). 

Another paper in the community was the Granite Mountain Star, which began publication on June 22, 1889 and suspended publication during the Silver Crash of 1893. They notified subscribers the Philipsburg Mail would be sent during the suspension (81). The Star was owned and operated by W.J. Swartz who also was a barber in Granite. The last publication was in 1894. In the Montana Historical Society Research Library there are only a couple of months of the paper microfilmed, but a note in the files stated the original papers are in the Library at the University of Montana. W.J. Schwartz also served the city of Granite as a postmaster for nearly four years and resigned during the week of May 14, 1897 (82).

 According to file cards at the Montana Historical Society Research Library, a number of other newspapers had sporadic and short lives. The Rock Creek News and the Quigley Times were published during the period Quigley was populated in 1896. The Quigley Times was owned and operated by T.C. Congdon of Philipsburg and the first issue was published on the week of May 17, 1896 ( 83). The Gregorian was published from 1905 to 1907; The Philipsburg Press, during the years 1913 and 1914; The Drummond Call during 1905 and 1906; The Granite County News from 1912 through 1916 and the Drummond News in 1918. I also found an article, in 1916, which stated The News at Drummond was being bought by Charles E. Anderson, who learned the trade at The Mail and recently worked for the Butte Miner (84).

Research also revealed Roy A. Neitz was the manager of the Drummond News, in 1921. It is believed by the Hauck family that the Drummond News was at that time part of the Philipsburg Mail. ( 85).


 Education

 (See the Blog article about William Graham to read about the first school )
Believing that there was going to be a great loss of students after the silver crash, , Granite decided to keep only Miss M.I. Wolfe, as principal and Miss S.K. Coonan, as Assistant and to open the school October 2. The two teachers were retained at a lesser salary of $110 and $75 a month (86).  Then the Granite News column published this article: 
When school opened Monday it was found that two teachers could not control the large number of pupils in attendance, and the services of Mrs. J.E. Trumbell were brought into service. Miss Sligh was employed temporarily, awaiting the arrival of Miss Wolfe from Anaconda…over 100 pupils were enrolled and the attendance is swelling daily (87).
In the same issue of the Mail, was an article which stated at the opening of the Philipsburg School, 200 pupils were enrolled for the term and the number would undoubtedly be considerably increased. The only change noticeable was the large attendance of children who had appeared for the first time in the Philipsburg School. 

Demonstrating examples of the mettle that kept the community of Philipsburg alive was the issue of education. Being a very important part of any community, education was discussed with many different means explored to raise the needed money for a permanent building. 

As early as 1893: 
The whole (school) Board is a unit on the question of increasing the school facilities, but the manner of doing it is where the difference of opinion comes in. A committee has been appointed…Trustee Pizer, of the committee, reported at the meeting that Angus McDonald wanted $2,000 per acre or $6,000 for three acres out where the baseball grounds are. Mrs. H. Schnepel, wanted $8,000 for five acres nearer to town. The Board was unanimous…that these figures were too much for the district to stand…Trustee Chris Jacky thought that the present site could be made to answer every purpose and suggested that steps could be taken to have the town board of Aldermen condemn the street between the two pieces of property owned by the district in order that they might be in one parcel of land. Then a good substantial brick building could be built, and there would be plenty of play ground. Trustee, Huffman agreed with Mr. Jacky.(88 ).
 Ultimately, a mill levy was passed by the City of Philipsburg and a Contractor Charles Suiter won the bid to construct a High School Building. By early December the Citizen Call, announced the new school was almost completed and should be turned over to the school trustees by the fifteenth with a new term of school starting by January 4(89).

This was not to be, but finally, The Mail, happily announced in January 1896 the:
 ...school house was completed and Mr. Charles Suiter turned the building over to the school board. The board accepted the building with an agreement that $5 per day equaling $275.00 does not have to be paid to Mr. Suiter due to the building not being completed on the agreed date. School will open next Monday. The teachers hired are: Prof. J.S. Gifford, Miss Annie Price, Miss M.C. Ryan, Miss Amy Short, Miss Madge Short and Mrs. Eugene Smith.90 The janitor hired was Harry Rust, at $50.00 per month.
 To fill in the void while the school was being constructed, the Citizen Call made a comment about some one starting a private school and:
 Following the suggestion of the Call, made several weeks ago, Mrs. F.H. Titus and Julius Hansen will open a private school in the private buildings owned by A.S. Huffman on California Street. They have secured the seats and other furniture of the old school house and will probably be ready for children on next Monday morning. There will be two departments, Julius Hansen will teach the grammar and Mrs. Titus the primary department. The terms have not been fully decided upon as yet, but it is believed that the tuition will be $2.50 per month (91).
 The following week there were twenty students in attendance on Monday and thirty were expected by the end of the week. I did not find any more reference to the private school once the new building was completed. The original frame school house was then converted into the County Court House, as evidenced by the following: “A notice to contractors and builders appears in another column of this paper in regards to remodeling the old school house for court house purposes.”(92)

 When the modern current Court House was erected, this still solid frame building was put on skids and moved to Porter’s Corner where it became known as the Vince and Maxine Fessler house (93).

The Philipsburg High School dedication was held on February 21, 1896, and the entire front page of the Philipsburg Mail,was dedicated to the event. A.R. Dearborn gave the opening address( 94 ). It was originally named the Philipsburg High School.

The first graduating ceremony was on May 27, 1898, comprised of Clara D. McDonel, Mary A. McKenzie (Burks), Pearletta M. Scott (Kroger), Lulu B. Rust (Lively), Fredrick W. Kroger, William H. Loughrin, and Vincent D. Doody. A classmate William B. Calhoun enlisted in the Spanish American War shortly before graduation, so did not attend the services. 

In 1896, the Philipsburg school census showed a total of 709 children in the district under the age of 21 years of age: boys 353, girls 356. The number between the ages of 6 and 21 was 439: boys 222 and girls 217. The number under the age of 6 years of age was 170: boys 131 and girls 139. The total was about the same as the previous year. (96). The opening day of school, on Monday, September 14, showed the attendance had increased from the prior year and by Thursday the attendance was as follows: Miss Ballard’s room: fifty eight; Mrs. Smith’s room: forty nine; Miss Caldwell’s room: fifty seven; Miss Ryan’s room: fifty three; Miss Short’s room: fifty six; High School: fifty five. This made the total attendance 328 students for the Grade and High school combined.(97).

Demonstrating at least one person’s concern, an editorial in 1897, chastised the parents for not visiting the school and becoming involved in their children’s education: 
If some of the parents had a hired man taking care of some thoroughbred dogs, chickens or horses, you might expect to see them looking them over occasionally. With children they are not so particular (98).
 The 1897, school election garnered 560 voters and decided the issue, whether the school district should supply textbooks and elect three trustees to the school board. The textbook question was defeated by sixty nine votes. Obviously, the population was willing to pay for the school but not the learning tools! George Metcalf and Josiah Shull were elected the trustee’s and John Dawson and John McKenzie tied for the third position. The tie ended up with the County Superintendent appointing John W. Dawson to fill the vacancy. The newly formed board elected R.B. Ringling as chairman, Dr. W.I. Power vice president and M.H. Bryan as clerk. Trustees leaving the board were: William Bowen, A.R. Dearborn, and M.W. Ballard. The other members of the board were: F.M. Durfee and C.B. Rust (99).

 It seems that time does not change the fact education is expensive and the citizenry was asked even at that time to step up to the plate and fund it.
 Special school election--An election has been called for Saturday June 5, 1897, at the public school house in Philipsburg, to determine as to whether or not a special tax of $3,500 shall be levied upon the assessable property in School District No.1. This sum is needed to conduct the schools of the next eight months term (beside the regular levy), beginning October 4, next. The judges of election, appointed at a meeting of the trustees Monday evening, are John Hickey, A.S. Huffman and M.W. Ballard (100).

The citizenry was loyal to their future and passed needed levies even though the classes were small. Only three students: Thomas E. Morton, Edgar P. Ballard and Frederick A. Baxter graduated June 16, 1899; four students: Caroline Cornell (Harvey), Ellen Fahey, Marion C. Durfee and Roderick McKenzie graduated on May 25, 1900; nine students: Charles C. Schoonover, Joseph P. Bradshaw, Lillian P. Atwater ( Rounds), Cleo Schoonover (Cunningham), Maude E. Hammond (Geiger), A. Laura Simmons (Wertenweiler), Zaidee McKay (Jackson), M. Elizabeth Doody (Ott) and Olive M. Smith (Woodworth) graduated on March 1, 1901; two students: Christina A. McKenzie (Villars) and Henry LeRoy Sprague graduated on June 12, 1902; eleven students: Cora Cornell, Donald Butter, Earl B. Patten, Bessie Westphal, Jennie Collins (Perra), Margaret Ryan (Gaylor), Marian Johnson (Castle), Margaret Gallagher (Ballard), Alta Albright (Patten), Lottie Bowen and Mildred Cochran graduated on June 5, 1903; six students: Kittie Bramble, Jean Butter (Holdeman), Annie Conn (Cree), Hannah Warner and Laura Winkler graduated on May 27, 1904.

 During all of these school years Anna H. Price was faculty with Jonas Cook as principal from 1894 through 1901. C.H. Roberts was the principal in 1902. G.T. Bramble became principal in 1903 and continued through 1916. Anna H. Price had other faculty assist her after 1905 and continued teaching through 1921 (101).

 By January 1904, enrollment was looking up. An open letter to parents from Principal, G.T. Bramble, asked them not to send children that recently turned six years of age to school in January. He asked them to please wait until September, as the teacher already had nearly seventy first graders. To add more students would make it impossible for her to give the new comers enough attention to pass them on to the second grade that spring. He continued on to explain there were plans to make two first grade classes in the fall (102). 

In March of 1904, the School Board of District No.1, decided to again submit to the voters of Granite County the concept of a County Free High School. The concept had been voted down by fifty one votes in 1900. The vote would be on April 9. The County Free High School election issue passed, with a majority of seventy five votes, needless to say the votes all came from the southern part of the county. There were only fourteen votes for the school in Bearmouth; one in Stone; one in Garnet; and two in Drummond. There was a rumor that the election would be contested but the Mail felt the rumor just gossip (103).

 Trustees appointed were: R.R. McLeod, Valentine Jacky, John Kaiser, Albert Schuh, James McGowan and Edward Lannen and the County Superintendent would also be a board member. 

The May school report showed attendance of fifty eight students in the High school; twenty nine in the eighth grade; forty three in the sixth and seventh grade; thirty eight in the second sixth and fifth grade; forty six in the third and fourth grade; forty two in the second third and first second grade classes; fifty three in the other second grade class; and sixty five in the first grade. This made a total of 372 students in the Grade and High School. 

The newly appointed Free High School Board set out to establish the school faculty, by electing Prof. G.T. Bramble as principal and Miss A.H. Price as his assistant at a salary of $1,500 and $900 respectively. They would hire two more teachers and secure about $700 in equipment. They obtained a lease for the upper floor of the District School building for a term of three years at $1,025 annual rent which included janitor and heat (104).

 Then Colonel Morse from the lower valley (New Chicago) brought suit to restrain the newly elected board to establish the High School (105).

The lengthy complaint basically stated that less than one hundred people had signed the petition to put the issue on the ballot; that two signers were county commissioner; that the other school districts did not have time to file a petition to have the school located in their district and so forth. 

After much legal wrangling, in 1905, The County Free High School was established with a business department in which bookkeeping, stenography, and typewriting would be taught. Three Remington Typewriters had been ordered and the other necessary apparatus were installed. A number of the graduating class of the previous year signified their intentions of attending the county high school and it was believed quite a large number of students from various parts of the county, would also attend (106). Of this beginning class fourteen students graduated in 1908.

 In 1910, there was discussion of erecting a building for a County High School. Since the high school had been established the county has been renting from Philipsburg School District No.1, the rooms and equipment necessary to conduct the school. The lease now in force was entered into in 1909 and would expire July 1911, and the facility was overcrowded. In 1909 a tax was levied for building purposes as provided by The High School Law. Four Mills were levied and created $10,052.22, available by 1910. The plans discussed at that time were for making another levy to provide funds to equip and furnish the building. A site, the high school trustees had secured an option on, was 270 by 256 feet and surrounded on all four sides by streets, in the Churchill addition. The site was practically donated, the cost to the county being slightly over $100. The Mail articles never stated who the land belonged to. (According to rumors the land was basically donated by August Greenheck.) The district was in need of the room and the present lease would probably be the last one the county would be able to secure. 

Within a few months and careful consideration the school board decided to build this Granite County High School. After an election that resulted in favor of authorizing the High School trustees to expend $30,000 for the erection of a new school building at Philipsburg, it became a fact. The south and north ends of the county were quite generally divided against the proposition. No unusual interest, however, was taken in the election, and the vote cast was generally light--only about half that of the previous general election. Quigley, Hall, Stone, New Chicago, Drummond, Bearmouth and Garnet voted mostly against the proposition, which is understandable when you take into account how far their students would need to travel to attend the new school, their taxes were paying for. 

The next week school officials announced they were able to buy numerous lots on Church Hill, which must have been the ones spoken of in a previous paragraph. The school was completed in 1912. The school building quietly served the county for some good years, and then petitions were circulated in 1946, to abandon the County High School, with the idea of consolidating it with the Grade school and thereby greatly improving the school system. County High Schools, by statute, are only allowed to budget for a fixed amount per pupil, based on the enrollment from the year prior to the time of making the budget. With the small enrollment at Granite County High School the past few years, it had been difficult to operate and procure teaching staff, even though the allowance per pupil was raised by emergency legislation during the war. The emergency legislation would expire after 1946 and it was essential that some action be taken before they were faced with a need to close the school for lack of adequate financing (108).

The principal at that time was Ralph S. Eudaly, who had served in that position for four years. Dora Penington was starting her sixteenth year on faculty. Vincent Boyle was teaching his second year, with Miss Carol Reed, in her first year. Wally Frost continued to fulfill his important role of keeping the building in ship-shape, as the Janitor.

 Frequent articles, centered on funding and teaching staff, were published through out the next decade, as the school continued to graduate students. Finally, it was determined that the name Granite County High School, could no longer be used, as the school did not serve the entire county. The High School students of the lower valley had for years been served by other school districts within the county. In 1970, the old High School building was sold and is now a residence. A new building was erected for the high school students near the original Philipsburg School. Extensive historical preservation work has been completed and this building is the current grade school. In 2016, the problems continue with enrollment steadily decreasing. 


From Mining Camp to City

For some unknown reason the sporadic work in the mines and mills, although causing hardship for the residents and businesses of Philipsburg, plus a flux in population, did not stop the camp from becoming a town. In 1869, the Hope Mill experienced a recession and almost caused the death of the camp. 
..Its streets were empty, its buildings tenantless, the mines deserted. Silence and solitude reigned almost unchallenged. Of 1500 people, only three remained: Henry Inkamp, E.B. Waterbury and J.M. Merrill (Merrell). For one day Henry Inkamp was alone in camp. Alone in the little city with its hundred of closed doors and cheerless windows, the great mill towering like a specter of departed life and the broad street grass-grown and deserted (109).
  Henry Inkamp, born in Prussia came to Philipsburg as a merchant in 1867. He built the Inkamp building in 1887 as a business block. Since 1892, businesses in the block have included a Gentleman’s, Clothing Store, a Grocery and Fruit Market, a Tailors Shop, Doctor’s Offices, Printing Office, Utility Office and Post Office. The current businesses are Whimsy on the east side and Pat’s Styling Saloon on the west end (110).

In 1870, Purvine and Schnepel leased the mill and the town began to come back to life. Then in 1872, George Plaisted and Brown, leased the mill and ran a considerable amount of ore. Colonel Lyons crushed 500 tons of Trout Ore, for the Imperial Company that same year. As of this time I have not found an obituary for Henry. 

Comments in Montana Pay Dirt state that residents from other camps went to the 'Burg for entertainment and their major needs. I find this interesting since Granite had a huge Miner's Union Hall, where entertainment was presented, a theater, numerous saloons and a red light district/ Also a settlement near Black Pine called Whiskey Flats, had all types of drinking and bawdy entertainment. My theory is because Philipsburg was not supported by any one mine or mill after the first few faialures, they were able to stay in existence by the ranching community and therefore able to withstand the ebb and flow of the mining industry.(111), 

This view is also expressed in the Sociological fiction Small Town Stuff, based on a town called Mineville. The residents of Philipsburg believed the book was really written about them, as the author was raised in Philipsburg. The story goes that the citizens went all over Montana buying up and destroying the book. Due to the rarity of the book, I paid $129.00 for one of only three copies found on the internet, in 2006 (112).

 Politically active citizen’s watching the camp of Philipsburg survive for twenty more years, wrote articles of incorporation in October of 1890. Elections were held the first week of November, with a positive vote, formally declaring, it was now a town.


 McDonel 

The city’s first Mayor was pioneer Jim McDonel, known to his friends as “Uncle Jim”. He was born January 3, 1843 and reared on his father’s farm in Wisconsin. In 1864, he left home and started working for a company that crossed the plains by mule teams, with Nevada their destination. After working with friends in Nevada about nine months, Jim set out for Montana and arrived in Virginia City in the spring of 1865. He worked in Blackfoot City, Jefferson City, and Carpenter’s Bar, before settling near Gold Creek. With two partners he built a $2,000.00 bridge and set up a toll service for those wishing to cross the Clark’s Fork River. The river was known by many other names during the time the Toll bridge was owned. In the first five weeks the bridge made $1,500 in toll fees. Jim was involved for five years with the original owners and then was the sole proprietor for another two years. Next he opened a livery stable in Pioneer, which he ran for six year. In 1879 he sold out and moved to Philipsburg and engaged in a livery business for five years. He then moved to Granite, where he platted the town, sold town lots and erected the first business house in Granite (113). 

 Poor health caused him to return to Philipsburg, where he operated a saloon for six months. Next he went into real estate and ranching. Prior to the city being incorporated, Jim served for four years as the Constable of Philipsburg and also served two terms as Justice of the Peace. After serving two terms as Mayor, Jim was elected as a Deer Lodge County Representative to the State legislator and in 1893 he presented House Bill No. 110, which created Granite County.

 Jim died at the age of eighty four at his niece, Clara Dell McDonel’s home, on November 18, 1927. Survivors were: Nieces: Clara of Philipsburg and Mrs. John Cole of Anaconda and nephew Robert McDonel of Philipsburg. Jim was buried in the Philipsburg cemetery. 

Another McDonel family member that came to Montana was his sister Mary McDonel Weist. She died in Anaconda at her son’s home (name not mentioned) during the week of June 5, 1908. She had lived in Anaconda for two years, after moving from California1(14).

 Robert McDonel died a few weeks after his uncle on December 4, 1927, also at Clara’s home. He had traveled from a mining enterprise at Grace, Idaho, for Jim’s funeral. Prior to the trip he suffered a stroke and his death was secondary to the paralytic effects. Born in Beetown, Wisconsin on November 10, 1864, Robert came with his parents Elizabeth and Charles in 1871 by Ox team through Salt Lake City to Deer Lodge, then on to Pioneer. In 1879 they moved to Philipsburg. 

Frequent mention is made of horse racing in the early day newspapers. Obviously Robert was involved in the sport as noted from this article:
 A fine animal of Robert McDonel, is suffering from an attack of lung fever. He will be unable to compete in the up coming trot. Last night it was feared he would not survive, but today Mr. McDonel says he is better. The colt is a valuable one.(115).
 Robert’s only association affiliation was with the Society of Montana Pioneers. As a miner he located many claims in Pioneer and around Philipsburg. He filed application for the position of Marshall of Philipsburg, along with Sam Davis, James Peterson and Charles Glass on June 11, 1895. Robert won the position and served as Marshall through 1896. Survivors were: his wife Lily Royal McDonel; daughters: Mrs. Charles C. Baker of Coeur ‘D Alene, Idaho and Eva McDonel of Seattle; Sons: Robert of Wallace, Idaho and William of Philipsburg; and sisters: Mrs. John H. Cole of Anaconda and Clara D. McDonel of Philipsburg. His funeral was held on December 7, from the home of his sister with pallbearers: J.W. Duffy, John Hickey, Angus Johnston, R.E. McHugh, Henry Steber and Merrit Robey. He was buried in the family plot at the Philipsburg cemetery (116).

 Robert‘s first wife Eva died April 26, 1899 at the age of twenty six years one month and fifteen days, according to her headstone inscription. Her obituary stated she died at their home of blood poisoning resulting from an operation performed the same day as her death. Born Eva Tilley in Orrington, Missouri in 1873, she came to Philipsburg with her mother about twelve years before her death and married Robert in 1889. Survivors were: husband, Robert; three children: Hazel age nine; Harold age three and May Dewey whose first birthday would be May 1; her mother in Great Falls; plus two sisters and a half brother in Missouri. She was a member and current secretary of Home Forum Lodge No. 1334. The funeral was held on April 29, from the Methodist Church, with internment in the Philipsburg cemetery (117).

 The son Harold, born three years before his mother died, was a veteran of WWI. He married Miss Mabel Stiner of Gold Creek, in Seattle on December 3, 1922 and died in 1925. Harold is discussed in more depth in the Patriots Chapter. 

Robert’s second wife was Laura Hess, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. T.R. Hess, of Trout Creek. Laura was born November 6, 1874, at the Griffin Place near Drummond. A few years later her family moved to Pioneer and lived there until they homesteaded on Trout Creek. The family is discussed in depth in Book II.

 Laura and Robert were married in July of 1902 and she died September 26, 1912, at her home, after a short illness. The Ladies of the Bitter Root Circle, Women of Woodcraft attended the body and assisted at the funeral service when she was buried at the Philipsburg cemetery. Survivors were: her husband Robert, Four children: two sons and a daughter from a previous marriage (no names given) and son Robert, age eight from this marriage; sisters: Rebecca Hess Sandin of Ross’ Fork of Rock Creek, Mabel Hess Goldsby of Spokane, Washington, Mrs. Fred Russell of Pioneer and Mrs. L.C. Graves of Oakland, California and brother George Hess of Ovando, Montana. Not named in the obituary was her brother Ray (118).

 Their son Robert moved away from Philipsburg as a young man then returned with his wife Bernice in 1954 and operated the M and M Bar until June 1955. They then moved to Tacoma where he died on June 4, 1956. Robert was buried in Sand Point, Idaho (119).

 Robert Sr. married his third wife, Miss Lily Royal of Willow Creek in Butte on April 16, 1920. Rev. W.H. Pascoe conducted the ceremony at the parsonage of the Trinity Methodist Church with Mr. and Mrs. Matthews as witnesses. The newly weds returned to a cozy home on Granite Street after a short honeymoon. At an unknown date they homesteaded on Section Four, across the Willow Creek Road from Hans Luthje Sr. They must have moved some time before Robert’s death, because Lily’s brother William Royal, lived on the homestead prior to his death (120). 

 Lily Royal McDonel, born September 11, 1874, died November 1, 1929, in the Northern Pacific Hospital, in Missoula. One of thirteen children, born to Dr. and Mrs. William B. Royal, she was survived by Robert and their son Billy. The funeral was held at St. Paul’s Methodist Church on November 4, with internment in the family plot. Pallbearers were: John Hickey, Herman Shoblom, Joseph Kearns, Dr. A.C. Knight, R.J. Huffman, all of Philipsburg and Fabion Bissonette, of Deer Lodge (121).

 Robert and Lily’s son, William Royal McDonel, married Marie Hughes, in Butte, at St. Patrick’s Catholic Church, on August 15, 1945. There were seventy five guests present who attended a wedding breakfast after the ceremony (122).

 Jim’s brother and sister-in-law, Charles and Elizabeth McDonel moved to Montana in 1871, with their first two children. Charles was born on March 9, 1837 in Ireland and came to the United States at the age of seven. The family settled at Beetown, Wisconsin. As a young adult he came to California in 1862, then returned to his hometown and married Elizabeth Hammond. Charles died on August 28, 1906, after a short illness, at his home on Montgomery Street. 

He was taken ill after dinner at the Hotel on Sunday, where he ate cucumbers and ice cream. A physician was promptly called, but complications set in and he died on Tuesday. He had a history of kidney problems and had been weak since suffering pneumonia, two years before. Survivors were his wife, Elizabeth, son Robert, currently chief of Police and daughters: Miss Clara of Philipsburg and Mrs. John (Mary) Cole of Anaconda. Rev. A.S. Buell of St. Paul Methodist Church performed the service at the home of his brother James on Broadway. He was interred in the Philipsburg cemetery on August 30, 1906.

 Robert McDonel’s mother, Elizabeth owned a millinery and Notions Store and in 1893 she published a notice in the Philipsburg Mail that stated “Mrs. E. McDonel would respectfully request those parties who have been stealing her wood for the past winter to please discontinue the practice, now that spring is approaching.”(123)

 Born in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania on November 23, 1846 to Mr. and Mrs. William Hammond, she married Charles McDonel during 1871, in Wisconsin. They left for the west, soon after the wedding, with a team of oxen and settled in Deer Lodge. Later they moved to Pioneer and then to Philipsburg in 1879. For years she was the constant companion of her daughter Clara Dell McDonel, the Post Mistress in Philipsburg.

 Elizabeth died at the age of seventy, from a heart condition on January 3, 1917, at the family home. Survivors were: son Robert, daughters: Clara and Mrs. John (Mary) Cole of Anaconda; nine grandchildren: John, Elizabeth, Florence, Fan and Cathryn Cole of Anaconda, Mrs. C. C. Baker, Eva (May), Harold and Robert McDonel Jr., of Philipsburg; three sisters: Mrs. Joseph Hyde, of Seattle, Mrs. William Coleman, of Deer Lodge and Mrs. W.J. Matthews, of Butte; and one brother Mr. T.A. Hammond of Bloomington, Wisconsin. Preceding her in death was her husband Charles and niece Katherine Bailey of Deer Lodge. She obviously was an astute business woman with frequent sale ads in the local papers stating hats all at half price.(124). Elizabeth is buried next to Charles in the Philipsburg cemetery.

 Their daughter, Clara Dell McDonel was born on June 6, 1879, in Philipsburg. She graduated from Granite County High School with the first graduating class of 1898. Miss Clara was very active in government affairs, including serving as Deputy Clerk of Court in 1901 and was nominated as Post Master of Philipsburg in April of 1916. She served in that position through WWI, but I have not been able to determine when or why she left the position. 

Next, Clara ran for the office of County Superintendent of Schools, in 1928, against Lottie Irvine, who had held the office for many years. Clara won the election 832 votes to 560. She held that office through the next election when she ran unopposed and the 1932 election. 

She also, was President of the Sons and Daughters of Montana Pioneers of Granite County for many years. Clara was the retiring Chief of Honor, in Hope Lodge No.7 on July 14, 1899, so must have been active at a very young age, being only twenty when she retired the position of Chief of Honor (125).

 In Albert Blumenthal’s book Small Town Stuff, he named a local woman Clara McDenry “…who is becoming recognized as the local historian…who witnessed the Golden Age which immediately preceded the panic of 1893”. Obviously this was the fictionalized name he gave to Clara, as she kept the towns history alive, during her lifetime.(126).

 Clara died on March 11, 1933. The Women of Woodcraft, held a service at her home on Monday evening, then Tuesday the cortege took the body to the First Methodist Episcopal Church, where Rev. McKnight officiated at an elaborate service. Last rites were said at the Philipsburg cemetery. Pallbearers were: Fred Bowen, W.E. Metcalf, H.A. Murphy, G.R. Karren, A.W. Lindstadt, C.L. Owen, Erick V. Johnson, and C.O. Westby. Honorary pallbearers were: James H. Mellen, Otis Mersereau, A.S. Huffman, Vatis Page, Arthur Flint, H.A. Featherman, John Hickey, Dr. A.C. Knight, Judge R.E. McHugh and E.C. Harrington (127).

 In the same issue of the Mail, as Clara’s death notice, it was reported thirty eight feet of snow had fallen so far at the Milwaukie Railway east portal. The portal was located on the Montana-Idaho border. Frequent references throughout the winter of 1932-33, reported East Fork residents snowed in and the Memorial Day celebration was held in the McDonald Theatre, because one foot of snow fell the day before. 

In September of 1933, the Skalkaho Highway was closed in September due to an early snowstorm. The population, no matter what the weather, did not skip a beat, as they continued to demonstrate their fore-fathers mettle.

 Clara’s uncle, Michael McDonel came to Montana at the age of forty five and worked in the Casting department of the Anaconda Smelter, until five years before his death. He died on July 16, 1929, at the age of seventy three, in Anaconda. The only survivor was a daughter, Mrs. Pearl Shin of Anaconda (128).

 Eva (May) McDonel, the youngest daughter of Robert and his first wife Eva McDonel, married Chester A. Tincher, April 3, 1920, at St. Paul’s Methodist Church, in Helena. Rev. C.D. Crouch performed the ceremony. At the time of the marriage, Eva had been acting as assistant postmistress in Philipsburg. Mr. Tincher, a Helena resident, previously earned prominence in Seattle as an entertainer and violinist. He became employed at the Street’s Paint Shop, a few weeks prior to the wedding. The newlyweds planned to live in the Harvey Hotel, in Helena. Eva’s father married Lily Royal, one week later (129).

 Mary McDonel married the first sheriff of Granite County, John Cole. John was born at Albion, New York on July 28, 1960. He became an orphan at a very young age. Prior to his mother’s death they moved to St. Thomas, Ontario, where he received his education. At the age of fourteen he traveled to the Canadian west, which at that time was Winnipeg and attended the St. John’s Episcopal College. He then traveled to the Black Hills in North Dakota during the period gold was found there. He then returned to Winnipeg and began employment with a government telegraph company. This job eventually brought him to Edmonton, Alberta and from there he migrated to Fort Benton, Montana.

The first two years in Montana he spent at Helena, then moved to Philipsburg. His obituary stated he traveled almost the entire state on horseback. John was a rancher, miner, stockman and worked as the city editor for the Anaconda Standard for six years. 

On December 28, 1888, John married Mary McDonel, in Philipsburg and to this marriage was born six children: Mary Elizabeth, Jane, Florence, Fannie, Cathryn and John. Their daughter Mary born January 25, 1889, died on September 29, 1897 and is buried in the Philipsburg cemetery. 

Prior to serving as the first sheriff of Granite County, John served as undersheriff in both Missoula and Deer Lodge Counties. He served for nine years on the Anaconda School Board, where part of his service was as President. He relinquished that position, the spring before he died. John served two terms as President of the fraternal Brotherhood, besides being an active member. As an involved parent he served as the president of the Montana State Baseball League. 

He was an avid democrat and was very involved in politics. John owned many fine horses and dairy stock and was an authority on their fine points. John died at his home in Anaconda, from diabetes on July 26, 1915. His funeral was in Philipsburg, with internment next to his daughter Mary, in the Philipsburg cemetery. 

His wife Mary born September 17, 1867 died November 8, 1930 and is buried next to John. Their daughter Elizabeth Jane, born September 18, 1888 died June 1, 1963 and was also buried next to her parents (130).


Royal 

William W. Royal was the brother of Lily Royal McDonel and died on March 23, 1927. The Royal family came from Gardiner, Illinois in 1855 by wagon train to Oregon. William’s grandfather Reverend William Royal was one of the first circuit riders of the Methodist Church. The children’s father Dr. William Royal ministered to the sick through out western Oregon. William came to Deer Lodge at the age of twenty and for a time, taught school at New Chicago. Next he mined in Pioneer and on Granite Mountain. He hauled silver bullion from Philipsburg to Drummond for shipment, before the railroad spur was built to Philipsburg. In his later years he became involved in raising stock.(131).

The McDonel homestead on Willow creek is where William spent his later years. In Anne Luthje’s book she tells the story that neighbors always wondered why he never took the saddle off of his horse (132). 

 I found an article in 1897, which discussed the rustling of stock and the cost it was causing the group to pay a stock detective. The president of the organization was John A. Featherman of the lower valley. The association was in debt for the sum of $1,300, which caused the group to feel they needed to terminate the detective. George Morse stated he had bought a number of cattle from Royal which carried many different brands, including Frank Carnegie’s brand. If anyone wanted the cattle back they would need to pay him for the price he paid to buy them and for the feed it cost him to care for them in the past two years. No one seemed to believe Mr. Royal had anything to do with the cattle rustling and the association had paid him $500.00 for assistance in placing Buchanan and “Louie”, the butcher in the penitentiary (133).

William married Miss Christine Ley, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John T. Mason of Hall, on April 28, 1910. At that time William was a partner with J.J. Appel in the Granite County Meat Company of Drummond. There was no description of the wedding or where it was performed. This conversation leads one to believe that Royal was involved in the cattle business at an earlier date than stated in his obituary (134).

 The Mason’s were pioneers of the lower valley and will be discussed in Book III. Mr. Mason died May 29, 1916 and was buried in the Philipsburg cemetery (135).


 Hammond 

Elizabeth Hammond McDonel’s father was William Hammond. He was born in Hagerstown, Maryland on November 26, 1822. He married Miss Jane House, in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania on December 14, 1845. After their marriage they moved to Wisconsin for sixteen years then immigrated to the Deer Lodge Valley. In 1875 they moved to Philipsburg, where he owned and operated local stages.

William died February 23, 1896, at the age of seventy three years and three months, after being an invalid for two years. His funeral cortege began at the family home on California Street and traveled to the Methodist church, where services were held by Rev. Wm. B. Coombe, assisted by Rev. Charles Quinney and Rev. C.H. Grabe. The gathering then moved to the Philipsburg cemetery where he was laid to rest beside his wife Jane.

 William’s obituary stated he left a valuable estate that would be divided among the children that survived him. The obituary does not list any pallbearers or associations he was a member of. The stages he operated were: 
From Philipsburg to Drummond which he operated with James McDonel. He bought this route from a man named Taylor; From Philipsburg to Anaconda which he operated with Giles Brownell; and the stage line between Philipsburg and Granite, which he operated under the name Wm. Hammond and Company (136).
 Research found the obituaries of Elizabeth’s mother Jane and brother George. Jane cared for William for eighteen months while he was too feeble to assist himself and was at his bedside until only a few days before her death. She was sixty seven years of age and the day she died was their fiftieth wedding anniversary, December 13, 1895. 

Survivors were: her husband, the previously named four daughters in Montana and son Tuecer in Wisconsin. The funeral was held at the Methodist Church on December 14, with Rev. Wm. B. Coombe officiating. She was interred in the Philipsburg cemetery (137).

 George Hammond died at his parent’s home on March 22, 1890, after a lingering illness of five months, at the age of forty. He was an athlete and horseman with a world record for sprinting the 100 yard in nine and three-fourth seconds. He left a wife and daughter Maude; parents, Mr. and Mrs. William Hammond; sisters: Mrs. Joseph Hyde, Mrs. E McDonel, Mrs. Wm. Coleman and Mrs. W.J. Matthews of Philipsburg and brother Tuecer of Wisconsin (138). 

 George’s daughter Maude, born in Philipsburg on January 31, 1884, graduated from the Philipsburg High School in 1901. She married Fred Geiger on January 30, 1904. Fred was also a Philipsburg native. After their marriage in Missoula, they took a short honeymoon and then established a home in Philipsburg.

 Maude gave birth to a baby boy on January 7, 1905, with puerperal fever developing shortly after birth. The baby died on January 11 and Maude died at 11 o’clock p.m., on January 12. A service at the home and graveside was performed by Rev. W.H. Pascoe on January 15. Survivors were her husband, Fred; mother, Mrs. M.O. Hankins and a number of aunts and cousins living in Philipsburg, Deer Lodge, Butte, Anaconda and Seattle (139).

 Elizabeth’s uncle, James Hammond was another prominent person in the community. He was one of the original locators of the famous Golden Sceptre group of mines in Quigley and received $10,000 for his share. He died while on a train between Fargo and Bismarck, North Dakota, on July 7, 1896. His physician had advised him to attain treatment at a Philadelphia hospital, after being in poor health for about one year. 

His brother-in-law W.P. Ketchum, from Milwaukie had come west to help James with his business interests and attended to his estate, as James still owned one-third interest in valuable mines adjacent to the Golden Sceptre mines.

 Born in West Newton, Pennsylvania in 1828, he came to California in 1850. By the mid fifties he had moved to Nevada where he made and lost a fortune in mining. In 1864 he came to Alder Gulch and then moved on to Henderson Gulch and Bearmouth. Next, he partnered with a man named Sloss in Arasta Gulch, near Georgetown, when Cable was in full swing. 

The August 6, 1896, obituary does not state his wife’s name, survivors or the disposal of his remains. There is no record of burial in the Philipsburg cemetery (140).


 A.A. McDonald

Another pioneer of Philipsburg was Angus Alexander McDonald, known as “Red Mac”. I have discussed other McDonalds, some his relatives, in other chapters, but will discuss A.A. here. He was woven into all the fabric that created and helped Philipsburg survive. Angus came from a branch of the McDonald (MacDonald) family that emigrated from Scotland to Canada about 1775. Born August 15, 1842 in Alexandria, Glengary County, Ontario Canada, he came to Montana in either 1862 according to his obituary or 1864 according to the Pioneer Society. 

As of 2016, I have found in The Montana Historical Society "Contributions" Volume I, 1876 (pages 293-308)  a list of all the white people living in what is now Montana during the winter of 1862-63. The only McDonald listed is Peter who was living in Missoula County, Washington Territory at Hell Gate. Therefore the 1864 Pioneer Society date must be the date of A.A.'s arrival into Montana. Research does not reveal his name among any of the early miners at the Flint Camp in 1865 so it is uncertain exactly when Angus arrived at the area now know as Philipsburg. A.A. was successful in all of his endeavors, be it banking, ranching, mining or politics and he amassed a large fortune. His advice was sought after and valued (141).

The first mining property I found him buying was in the monetary publications for Deer Lodge County in 1882: 
February 6-John Ulery to Angus McDonald, for $850.50, undivided one-half of Mountain Boy Quartz Lode, undivided one-third of Ranchero Quartz Lode and undivided one-fourth Bowie Quartz Lode and undivided one-half Emerald Quartz Lode, all in Flint Creek Mining District. Sale made February 1 (142).
Continuing to collect mining interests, A.A. built himself many enterprises and was always ready to develop new ones. In 1895 he went into partnership with L.C. Degenhart and Joseph J. Appel under the name of Flint Creek Meat Co. They opened a retail meat business on December 23, in the Hynes Building next to McLeod’s Shoe store. Ads in the newspapers stated they had a first class line of fresh, salted and smoked meats, consisting of beef, pork, veal, mutton, hams, bacon, poultry and fish; pickled and canned meats and dressed beef. They also carried condiments such as mustard and celery. A.A. was the business president, L.C. the treasurer and Joseph the manager (143).

 Research also revealed articles where he was in Helena attending to business connected to the Diamond Hill Gold property, of which he was the principal owner. He had been offered $40,000 for the property, but would sell it for $200,000. Then in the same issue of the Helena Independent was an article stating:
 Angus A. McDonald, a Philipsburg banker, is in the city today. His mission here is to meet a millwright from the coast whom he will let a contract for a forty stamp mill, which is to be erected on a gold proposition known as the Diamond Hill, in Indian or St. Louis Gulch…He has a small mill now working the ore, but finds it insufficient at this time. The mine has been producing with this small mill however as much as $400 a day (144).
 Angus and his wife bought the property owned by Northern Pacific Railroad in 1896 on Sansome Street and built the McDonald Opera House for a sum of $30,000. In 1916, I found where Otto Rinderknecht who had been in charge of the Opera House, surrendered management to Mrs. A.A. McDonald. The new manager was to be Angus Jr. Obviously this was A.A.’s nephew nicknamed “Sandy”, as Mr. and Mrs. McDonald did not have children.

 In 1889, A.A. was elected County Commissioner of Deer Lodge County and held that office until Granite County was created in 1893. His obituary stated he built the McDonald Opera House, organized the Merchants’ and Miner’s National Bank, and gave financial support to many commercial and industrial enterprises. At the closing of 1895, the Merchants’ and Miner’s Bank had capital of $50.000 with A.A. the president, F.J. Wilson vice-president, C.H. Eshbaugh cashier, C.E. Hymer assistant cashier and the Board of Directors were: M. E. H. Gannon, L.C. Degenhart, F.M. Durfee and August Greenheck (145). 

The assessed taxes in 1896 for the Merchant and Miners Bank were $784.86 and for A.A., as an individual they were $565.65. In 1897, the Merchant and Miners Bank sued Charles McLure for a $5,000 promissory note, given on September 24, 1896, but McLure left town before he could be served the papers (146).

With very little forewarning, the Merchants’ and Miner’s National Bank went into receivership in 1897 and the district court was presented the: “petition of F.A. Swiggett, receiver of the Merchant’ and Miner’s National Bank to sell personal property. The court heard the proof and granted the application. The property to be sold consists of the burglar proof safe and check punch, for which the H.I. Weinstein Company has made a bid of $508.00 (147).

 C.H. Eshbaugh, spoken of in a previous paragraph as the cashier of the bank, was indicted on two charges of misapplication of funds, by a grand jury in 1896. He was found not guilty on the first count, by a jury, in the United States Court, after they deliberated for five hours, on May 6. 1898. The second indictment was postponed for the term and I never found any follow-up (148).

 From about 1900 until his death, research revealed numerous articles stating A.A. returned from a visit at his ranch on Willow Creek. In 1908 several new automobiles were ordered by residents of Philipsburg. Two of them were touring cars: one for Mayor A. A. McDonald and one for Attorney W.E. Moore. The Mayor had expected his car to be delivered before the election date so he could drive voters to the polls, but no such luck. A.A. promised them all a ride as soon as the vehicle arrived (149).

 A.A. died April 2, 1910, at his home from pneumonia. Diagnosed with pleurisy one week prior, he became increasingly ill and when it was determined he had pneumonia, Dr. Tracy of Helena was called in. Everything possible was done for the ill man, but to no avail. 

A. A. served as City Alderman, besides being the Mayor of Philipsburg and prior to his death had again been re-elected to the position of Mayor. He held membership in the Selish Tribe Improved Order of Red Men; Hellgate Lodge B.P.O.E.; the Montana Society of Pioneers and was a member of the Board of Managers for the Montana State Fair.

 Survivors were: his wife Susie, a niece and several nephews (not named in the obituary). 
The funeral was held at St. Philip’s Catholic Church and “was the largest ever seen in this city”. Solemn High Mass was celebrated by Father Moran, the parish priest. Rev. Father Landy of Deer Lodge and Rev. Father O’Kennedy of St. Patrick’s Church in Butte were deacon and sub-deacon. As a further mark of esteem, business houses throughout the city closed their doors during the funeral and everybody turned out to pay their respects. The funeral procession was a very long one, every available conveyance in the city being in line. The Elks formed an honorable escort for the body and marched ahead of the hearse to the cemetery.

 Pallbearers were: N. Noe, John W. Duffy, D.A. McLeod, P.H. McDonald, Owen McBride and D.M. Durfee. His headstone in block twenty one, lot twenty two, grave four has his name spelled MacDonald (150).

 A.A.’s wife Susie A., born in Dubuque, Iowa in 1866, came to Philipsburg in 1884. A few years later she married A.A. Following the death of her husband, she assumed charge of all the business interests: “with an understanding and ability that would have done credit to a trained executive and soon enjoyed the reputation of being one of the keenest business minds in the community”(151).

The business enterprises she managed included several livestock ranches and a variety of businesses in Philipsburg, including the McDonald Theatre. Susie died at the Deer Lodge Hospital on March 27, 1932, while she was taking treatments for a chronic illness (152).

 Active pallbearers, serving at Deer Lodge were: M. E. H. Gannon, V.A. Harpole, F.B. Durris, George O. Burks, S.P. Wilson and L.C. Boedecker. Active pallbearers at Philipsburg were: D.M. Durfee, Edward Miller, D.H. Morgan, Florian Winninghoff, John O’Donnel and Pat McGurk. Honorary pallbearers were: John J. Orr, W.E. Albright, August W. Lindstadt, E.E. Williams, Angus Murray, C.E. Kennedy, Hugh J. McDonald, Marion Durfee, J.J. McDonald, A.S. Huffman, Fay Easterly, Angus McDonald, John W. Duffy, T.N. Brogan, Frank Winninghoff, Nick Noe, John C.Werning, H. O. Flickinger, H.A. Featherman, J.D. Kennedy and H.A. Murphy. 

The body was removed to her nephew, Thomas O. Collin’s home where it lay in state until Monday, then was brought to a long time friend’s home, Mrs. Owen McBride, in Philipsburg. The funeral was held Tuesday in St. Philip’s Catholic Church. The Requiem High Mass was performed by Father O’Malley of Philipsburg, Father D.P. Meade of Missoula and Father T.F. Landy of Deer Lodge. After a brief service at the cemetery, Susie was interred next to her husband.(153)

 Apparently Susie’s nephew, Thomas O. Collins living in Deer Lodge inherited some of the property after Susie’s death and that is how the Tom Collins ranch became prominent in the Philipsburg community. Tom was the senior partner in The Philipsburg Cash Grocery in the early 1900’s and prior to moving back to Philipsburg, owned and operated a grocery store in Deer Lodge. Descendants of the extended family believe Susie’s maiden name was Hogan. The Hogan families continue to live in Deer Lodge and the Drummond area (154).

The above paragraphs provide only a cursory history of the early days of what is now known as Granite County. The few individuals discussed are by no means the only persons of mettle. Because of varied interest and involvement in the politics, entrepreneurship and mining, many more of the populous will be described in the following chapters. 

(Copying the book from paper text to the blog changed formatting extensively and the page numbers will not be the same as those listed in the Index of Book I published elsewhere on this blog.)

                                           Endnotes

1 Wolle, M.S., Montana Pay Dirt, 1963, pp.234. 
2 New Northwest, September 3, 1875. 
3 Cheney, R.E., Names on the face of Montana, Revised 1984, pp.130. 
4 Philipsburg Mail, May 10, 1918.
5 New Northwest, August 27, 1895. 
6 Philipsburg Mail, August 11, 1905. 
7 ibid May, 6, 1927. 
8 Campbell, William C. From the quarries of Last Chance Gulch, 1951, Montana record Publishing Company, Helena, pp24. 
9 Philipsburg Mail, May 6, 1927. 
10 New Northwest August 27, 1875. 
11 Philipsburg Mail, May 6, 1927; May 4, 1893. 
12 Family history notes from: Fullerton, Jean Hauck, 2008. 
13 Philipsburg Mail, May 6, 1927. 
14 Philipsburg Territory, 2007 
15 ibid, August, 16, 1890. 
16 Wolle, M.S., Montana Pay Dirt, 1963, pp. 234. 
17 Philipsburg Mail, June 20, 1889. 
18 Philipsburg Mail, March 5, 1896. 
19 ibid, February 27, 1896. 
20 ibid, February 9, 1900. 
21 ibid, August 18, 2016 
22 Campbell, William C. From the Quarries of Last Chance Gulch, Helena, Montana, 1951 
23 Ibid 
24 Picture in the Tex Crowley Collection. Possession of LouAnn Fessler Schiveland 
25 Philipsburg Mail, February 27, 1896. 
26 ibid, February 12, 1897. 
27 New Northwest, July 8, 1881.
28 Philipsburg Mail, March 26, 1896. 
29 ibid, May 6, 1904. 
30 Philipsburg Mail, May 13, 1898. 
31 ibid, December 2, 1927. 
32 ibid, October 19, 1928. 
33 ibid. February 21, 1919. 
34 ibid, January 31, 1902. 
35 New Northwest, September 3, 1875. 
36 Philipsburg Mail, January 19, 1900. 
37 ibid, February 13, 1920. 
38 ibid, July 20, 1893. 
39 Montana State Historical Highway Marker. 
39 Wolle, M.S., Montana Pay Dirt, 1963, Sage Swallow Press Books, Athena, Ohio, pp 
40 Ibid, pp.234-254. 
41 New Northwest, September 10, 1875. 
42 Wolle, M.S. Montana Pay Dirt, 1963. 
43 Philipsburg Mail, August 25, 1905. 
44 ibid, April 29,1904. 
45 Wolle, M.S., Montana Pay Dirt, 1963. 
46 ibid, pp. 234-254. 
47 ibid, September 3, 1875. 
48 Philipsburg Mail, March 14, 1889. 
49 ibid, September 14, 1893. 
50 Stone A. R., Following Old Trails, 1996, Missoula Montana Pictorial Histories Publishing Company Inc. pp. 270-275. 
51 Philipsburg Mail, May 4, 1893. 
52 ibid, June 1, 1893. 
53 ibid, July 6, 1893. 
54 ibid, July 6, 1893. 
55 ibid, August 24, 1893. 
56 ibid, May 25, 1893. 
57 ibid, July 6, 1893. 
58 ibid, July 13, 1893. 
59 ibid, October 5, 1893. 
60 ibid, October 9, 1893 
61 ibid, November 2, 1893 
62 ibid, May 23, 1913. 
63 ibid, August 24, 1893. 
64 ibid, November 2, 1893. 
65 ibid, January 4, 1894. 
66 ibid, January 25, 1894. 
67 ibid, September 24, 1897. 
68 ibid, April 8, 1904. 
69 ibid, April 4, 1905 
70 Lesson, M.A., History of Montana, 1885, Warner Beers & Co. pp 553. 
71 ibid, 1885, pp.553 
72 Citizen Call, June 14, 1893. 
73 Philipsburg Mai l, May 11, 1893. 
74 ibid, September 24, 1897. 
75 ibid, December 30, 1898. 
76 Hauck, Herman,(Lornie) 2008. 
77 Philipsburg Mail, July 12, 1929; ibid, January 9, 1931. 
78 ibid, January 4, 2007. 
79 New Northwest, January 18, 1897. . 
80 Philipsburg Mail, February 2, 1906. 
81 ibid, July 6, 1893; July 13, 1893. 
82 ibid, May 14, 1897. 
83 ibid, May 14, 1896. 
84 ibid, April 14, 1916. 
85 ibid, September 23, 1921. 
86 Philipsburg Mail, September 28, 1893. 
87 ibid, October 5, 1893. 
88 ibid, May 4, 1893. 
89 ibid, December 4, 1895. 
90 ibid, January 9, 1896. 
91 Citizen Call, October 30, 1895. 
92 ibid 
93 Philipsburg Mail, November 23, 1934; Sichveland, 2006. 
94 ibid, February 27, 1896. 
95 The Granite Graduate, 1929 
96 Philipsburg Mail, August 21, 1896. 
97 ibid, September 18, 1896.
98 ibid, March 4, 1897. 
99 ibid, April 9, 1897. 
100 Citizen Call, May 26, 1897. 
101 The Granite Graduate, 1929 
102 Philipsburg Mail, January 15, 1904. 
103 ibid, April 15, 1904. 
104 ibid, May 13, 1904 
105 ibid, June 10, 1904. 
106 ibid, January 13, 1905. 
107 ibid, April 8, 1910. 
108 ibid, August 23, 1946. 
109 New Northwest, August 27, 1875. 
110 Philipsburg Territory, 2008. 
111 Wolle, M.S. 1963, pp. 234-254. 
112 Blumenthal, Albert, Small Town Stuff, 1932, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 18. 
113 Philipsburg Mail, November 18, 1927. 
114 ibid, June 5, 1908 
115 Citizen Call, June 14, 1893. 
116 Philipsburg Mail, December 9, 1927. 
117 ibid, April 28, 1899. 
118 ibid, September 27, 1912. 
119 ibid, June 15, 1956. 
120 Luthje, Anne, Upper Willow Creek, 2006. 
121 Philipsburg Mail, November 3 and 10, 1930. 
122 ibid, August 17, 1945. 
123 ibid, May 11, 1893. 
124 ibid, January 12, 1917; January 13, 1905 
125 ibid, July 21, 1899 
126 Blumenthal, Albert, 1932. 
127 Philipsburg Mail, March ,1933 
128 ibid, July 19, 1929. 
129 ibid April 9, 1920. 
130 ibid, July 30, 1915. 
131 ibid, March 25, 1927. 
132 Luthje, Anne, Upper Willow Creek, 2006. 
133 Philipsburg Mail, January 15, 1897. 
134 ibid, April 29, 1910. 
135 ibid, June 2, 1916. 
136 ibid, May 6, 1927. 
137 ibid, December 19, 1895. 
138 ibid, March 27, 1890. 
139 ibid, January 13, 1905. 
140 ibid, August 6, 1896. 
141 ibid, April 8, 1910. 
142 New Northwest, March 10, 1882. 
143 Philipsburg Mail, December 19, 1895. 
144 ibid, January 24, 1895; Independent, January 20, 1895. 
145 ibid, January 31, 1896. 
146 ibid, December 31, 1896; March 12, 1897. 
147 ibid, September 24, 1897. 
148 ibid, May 6, 1898, copied from the Independent, May 5, 1898. 
149 ibid, May 11, 1900; April 3, 1908. 
150 ibid, April 8, 1910. 
151 ibid, April 1, 1932. 
152 ibid, April 1, 1932. 
153 ibid, April 1, 1932. 
154 McDonald, Esther, 2008.

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