Thursday, September 29, 2016

Mettle of Granite County Book One, Chapter Seven, World War I (Part Two)

World War I

As the troubles in Europe began to ferment and our young men began signing up for the military frequent letters were published in the Mail from George Cartier. He was a member of the Seventh Division U.S. National Guard, of Pennsylvania, stationed in El Paso, Texas. “George is the only Philipsburg boy known to have been called for military duty on the Mexican border” stated the Philipsburg Mail, September 8, 1916.
His published letters described the daily duties of the troops and stated they have not performed any other duties except continuous drilling. He belonged to troop A of the cavalry so was putting his cowboy skills to work. A letter received by his parents the week of November 17, disclosed that he had been promoted and made:
a non-commissioned officer with the rank of corporal…I am proud to wear the two stripes on my arm indicating my rank….Last Monday General Bell and Major General Clement reviewed the regiment…We passed by at a walk, trot and gallop riding with one hand and carrying our sabre, glittering cold steel in the sun, in our right hand…Col. Mosely said it was wonderful the way we had trained our horses in such a short time.
George, born in Philipsburg on September 10, 1890, returned from the war and was discharged, on May 5, 1919. He resumed his employment with Bell Telephone as call circuit trunk engineer and married Aline Stier, of Philadelphia in 1922. In June 1933, he became the general traffic manager, for the Western Division and in November 1935 was promoted to traffic manager for the Eastern Division. They had sons George Jr. and Philip and daughter Suzanne. After being injured in a motor vehicle pedestrian accident he suffered internal injuries and died in Philadelphia, on January 14, 1938. The obituary January 21, 1938, does not detail, where he was buried.
The January 19, 1917, Philipsburg Mail has a small column that stated:
An Army recruiting officer, accompanied by his aid, from the U.S. Army central auxiliary recruiting station in Missoula, was in Philipsburg Tuesday for the purpose of securing recruits for the U.S. Army. The officer’s coming was not generally known, notice of same having been received too late for publication in last week’s issue of the Mail, so he will visit the city again in the near future, to interview and accept any desirable men who wish to enlist in the U.S. Army...the government has modified the regulations so that a young man of 18 or over can be enlisted without securing his parents consent.
When World War I began, the Granite County men were again quick to step up to the call for fighting men. The Montana Adjutant General‘s Office Records, are on file at the Montana Historical Society.[1]  Men in service during the combat years of 1917 - 1918, were routinely listed in The Philipsburg Mail. The articles describe the trials and tribulations of these combatants and the population’s support of the troops, by adhering to rations and the buying of war bonds, necessary to fund the costs of the war.
The Friday March 23, 1917 issue of the Philipsburg Mail has the headline:
EXTRA SESSION OF CONGRESS CALLED.  President Wilson, recognizing that Germany is practically making war on the United States, Wednesday called congress to assemble in extra-ordinary session on April 2, to deal with the situation.
                             THE PROCLAMATION
Whereas Public interests require that the congress of the United States should be convened in extra session at 12 o’clock noon on the second day of April 1917, to receive communication from the executive on grave question of national policy;
Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim and declare that an extra-ordinary occasion requires the congress of the United States to convene in extra session at the capital in the city of Washington on the second day of April, 1917, at 12 o’clock noon of which all persons who shall at that time be entitled to act as members thereof are hereby requested to take notice.
Given under my hand and the seal of the United States of America, the twenty first day of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred seventeen, and the independence of the United States, the one hundred forty first”.
Following this proclamation, the Mail on April 6, 1917, printed this article:
STATE OF WAR EXISTS. According to a message received this morning, a state of war was declared to exist between the United States and Germany. The war resolution passed the U.S. Senate Wednesday by a vote of eighty two to six. The resolution went to the House at 10 o’clock yesterday morning and was debated until passed at one o’clock this morning.
The April 13, issue of the Mail headlined:
RECRUITS FOR REGULAR ARMY. Recruiting Sergeant H.A. Byrant, United States Army, arrived yesterday from Missoula to examine the Philipsburg young men who had filed their applications with Postmaster Miss Clara D. McDonel. Those accepted left this morning with the recruiting officer for Fort Missoula where the will be given final examinations. From there they will be sent to Spokane to be outfitted and given preliminary training, and then transferred to Fort Wright, Washington. Those enlisted yesterday are: R. G. Hibbard, Angus McDonald, Roger Howe Bull, George Albert Winninghoff, Leland Earl True, and William Bryan Gregovich. William T. Williams and Lloyd Bronson also filed application, but Mr. Bronson failed to pass the physical test. Mr. Williams, who is employed at Hall, was not in the city when Sergt. Bryant examined the applicants, and as the officer could not accept him at Hall when he had enlisted here, he was unable to go.
Harding’s drum and fife corps escorted the boys to the depot this morning and a large number of high school students also went to see them off. Active service during the term of the war and a furlough to the reserve list afterwards is one feature of the army enlistment which is expected to appeal to many. Hitherto, full time has been required and many have held back because they did not wish to remain in the service if the war ended. “We enlist all persons for a term of seven years”, Officer Bryant explained. “At the end of one year, if the country is at peace they can be furloughed to the reserve. At the end of three years, furlough to the reserve is compulsory unless they enlist for an additional seven years.
A total of 500,000 men are wanted immediately for the service. Men will be accepted for the following branches of the service: Infantry, aviation, light artillery, quartermaster corps, coast artillery and signal corp.
R.G. Hibbard selected the aviation branch of the service, while the other young men will serve in the infantry department.
Officer Bryant has informed the postmaster that he will return to Philipsburg if additional recruits desire to enlist.
There was no more mention regarding the war, until June 1, 1917, when the following notice is posted:
In its campaign to stimulate interest in registration June 5, the war department has issued a memorandum emphasizing the seven cardinal points to be remembered, particularly by men between the ages of twenty one and thirty inclusive, who will be required to register. The memorandum follows:
1. There is only one day for registration--Tuesday June 5, 1917.
2. Every male resident of the United States of America who has reached his Twenty first and has not reached his Thirty first birthday must register on the day set, June 5, 1917. The only exceptions are persons in the military or naval service of the United States, which includes all officers and enlisted men in the regular army, the army reserve, the officer’s reserve corps, the enlisted reserves corps, the national guard, and national guard reserve, recognized by the militia bureau of the war department; the navy, the marine corps, the coast guard and the navy militia, the naval reserve force, the marine corps reserve, and the national volunteers, recognized by the navy department.
3. Registration is distinct from draft. No matter what just claim you have for exemption you must register.
4. Registration is a public duty. For those not responsive to the sense of this duty           the penalty of imprisonment, not fine, is provided in the draft act.
5. Those who through sickness shall be unable to register should cause a representative to apply to the county or city clerk for a copy of the registration card. The clerk will give instructions as to how the card should be filled out. The card should then be mailed by the sick person or delivered by his agent to the registrar of his home district. The sick person will enclose a self-addressed stamped envelope for the return of his registration papers.
6. Any person who expects to be absent from his voting precinct on registration day should apply as soon as practicable for a registration card to the county clerk of the county where he may be stopping. Or if he is in a city over 30,000, to the city clerk. The clerk will record the answers on the card and turn it over to the absentee who should mail this card to the registrar of his home district so that it will reach that official by registration day. A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed with the card to ensure the return to the absentee of a registration certificate.
7. Registration polls will be open from 7am to 9pm on registration day, Tuesday, June 5, 1917.
On June 8, 1917, the Mail announced:
Granite County registration is 561. Registration day in Philipsburg was rather quiet, all business being suspended for the day, but patriotism and loyalty was manifest on every side as men of the qualified age hurried to the various registration places where they could register themselves. During the afternoon the band gave an open air concert on Broadway, rendering inspiring music to the good of the cause.
The total registration of those of conscription age in Granite County was 561. Of this number 161 claimed exemption owing to dependent relatives, and four for physical disability. The registration cards show that of the total registration 132 were aliens and five were enemy aliens.
Three precincts in the county, Moose Lake, Red Lion, and Quigley, reported that no one of conscription age claimed residence in either precinct.
The American Red Cross was busy trying to collect funds to assist the men in the service and the Philipsburg Mail, June 22, 1917,explained the reason the government does not fund the American Red Cross was because:
it is ranked as neutral as long as it is maintained by private subscriptions…relief            work, also, must cut red tape, must be promptly ready for every emergency, must be governed by humanitarian principles and quick decisions and must not be hampered by the requirements of government machinery. At the same time the Red Cross is the only relief agency authorized by the government. Its head is the President of the United States, and its accounts are audited by the war department. Red Cross subscriptions may be paid in four installments, if desired, on July 1, August 4, September 1 and October 1. 
Walter W. Kroger was the chairman of the Granite County committee and they were organized to collect $500.00, in the County during this campaign.
Sheriff notes, on June 22, 1917, stated Sheriff Fred C. Burks, arrested 32 men, most of whom carried I.W.W. literature. They were taken before the Judge, fined $50.00 and costs, or given a suspended sentence if they left town immediately. They all left; two men were being held in the Philipsburg Jail, awaiting federal authorities, due to their failure to register.
In the same issue of the Mail, was the notice, detailing the government was in great need of stenographers and typewriters. The civil service commission, announced examinations would be given in forty different cities, through out the Eleventh Civil Service District, on June 30, 1917. Those men, hired in the quarter masters corps of the U.S. Army, would start with a salary of $1,000 per annum. Both men and women would be admitted for the examination.
Another aside in the same issue of the Mail, was this article:
The day before registration day there was a wedding ceremony performed at New York’s City Hall every three minutes. Whether the grooms were all slackers or not is not a matter of conjecture. The assumption is that many were. They will not so easily evade the draft, for the authorities have made it known that marriages contracted since the declaration of the war will not operate as a bar to service in the ranks. Consequently, the swift rate of a wedding every three minutes is not equal to that other record of a sucker every minute.
There was an announcement for a meeting, to be held June 22, 1917, at eight o’clock in the City Hall intending to formulate plans to obtain volunteers for the second Montana Regiment. Dan Smith, acting Mayor (in the absence of McCless), said there was the need to enlist twenty five or more recruits from Granite County. Men between the ages of eighteen and forty five were eligible and those in that age group were requested to attend the meeting. State wide 500 men were being sought to increase the regiment to war strength.  Lieut. Ecker, recruiting officer stated:
Montanans ought to get into the Montana volunteer regiment. If they survive the war, it is something they will be proud of. The Montana regiment has proved its mettle in all the crises it has faced.
A Navy recruiting officer was in town on June 28, 1917, to accept applicants that had signed up with Postmaster Clara D. McDonel, but due to a misunderstanding he was unable to take the applicants. The young men had enlisted, only for the term of actual war and the Navy only accepts men for a term of four years. The officer will return to Philipsburg after July 4 and will accept the young men, if they have changed their applications to serve a term of four years. Their names were: Lloyd Terrill, Norman Townsend, and Andrew Peterson. Also enlisted in the army were: John L. Morrison, Hugh A. McDonald, and William Harris, who left June 29 for Fort Missoula to take the examination. The account also noted Elmo Smith and Clayton Hull, who enlisted a few weeks ago, had been sent to training camps in California and Texas.
The news of the time, covered an article, announcing Yellowstone Park, with 150 new motor cars, each able to carry ten passengers, was officially opened the past week.
Highways several hundred miles in length are in fine condition, the result of work done by federal employees during the past month.
Announcing the need for a scoutmaster the July 6, 1917, Mail published the following account:
The war is beginning to be felt in every community. Every day men are dropping out of their accustomed places---appearing for a day or two in the uniform of the U.S. Army, Navy or Marine Corps and then departing for destinations unknown.
Many vacancies are left in our social, educational, and civic life which must be filled to prevent serious losses. It is a critical situation when a troop of boy scouts is left without a scoutmaster, or a group of boys not yet scouts but enthused with the desire for patriotic service, lacks a leader who can direct them in the expression of it…The time is ripe for bringing these men and these boys together. Do your bit as a scoutmaster. Uncle Sam’s boys need you because:
1. Fathers, brothers, and friends of boys are being taken away by active war service; this means an increase in juvenile crime.
3. Uncle Sam needs the service of organized boys.
2. Scoutmasters are enlisting for active service; their places must be filled.
The local group of scouts is in need of a scoutmaster and the boys are anxious to have a leader. Here is a golden opportunity for some man to do a genuine social service…… (send) a word to one of the local troop committee: H. A. Featherman, A.W. Lindstadt or L.F. Wilson (and they will) put you in line for the work, if you think it worth while.  Clyde Neu, Scribe.
C. H. True received pictures and a letter from son Leland, who was in the training camp in San Diego as a member of Company I in the Twenty First Infantry. One photograph had three Philipsburg boys: Leland, Roger Bull and Angus McDonald, pictured with their mess kits. The article goes on to describe, the three boys were some of the first to volunteer from Philipsburg and they were enjoying life. The letter explained each soldier is allowed $144.00 a year for clothes and described the type and number of each article received.
Three suits of underwear, ten pairs of socks, two shirts, two pair of leggings, two pair of shoes, one pair of tennis shoes, two uniforms, pants and coat, one belt, five pairs extra shoe laces, one pair overalls, one jumper, one cap, one hat, one hat cord.  Each man is given a tag to wear, with his name on it, for identification in case he is killed….My rifle shoots accurate to a hair…but talk about kick, these army rifles are the limit. That is what makes a lot of the boys miss; they know the rifle is going to kick and they flinch when they pull the trigger.
Also in this issue of the Mail was the announcement Thomas Duffy, son of Mr. And Mrs. John W. Duffy, of Philipsburg, married Miss Annette Brown, of Butte on June 30, 1917. The young couple left at once for Anaconda and Gregson, then came on to Philipsburg, arriving Monday evening. They would make their home in Philipsburg.
The July 27 issue of the Philipsburg Mail, listed unofficial draft returns, identifying the individuals by the precinct they live in and stating that not until later that evening would the list be in an official order, letting the young men know, what order they will be called in.
According to the July 27, Philipsburg Mail, the Montana State Fair:
to be held September 24-29, is now in the service of the United States government. Herbert C. Hoover, government food administrator, has designated Montana State Fair a food training camp, at which all people in its territory can study the problems of food efficiency which hew intends to place before them. Similar food training camps will be conducted at practically all the other large fairs of the country. It is the intention of the government to co-operate with the fairs in every way possible to convince everyone of the absolute necessity of producing more food and wasting less of it...and I am certain that great results will come from it.
August 3, 1917, Philipsburg Mail headline “UNCLE SAM’S CHOICE” stated the list of  person’s who needed to present themselves, before the local examining board at the county clerk’s office, for examination for military service: Calling the first forty to appear Thursday, August 9, the second forty to appear Friday August 10, and the third forty to appear Saturday August 11, 1917. The list contained the following names:
1. William Hoeg, Hall
2. Frank George, Bearmouth
3. Cris Nagel, Windsor Colorado
4. Wilfred Lyman Ashley, New Chicago
5. John Lolos, Bearmouth
6. Mitchell Mungas, Philipsburg
7. John Henry Brocklebank, Granite
8. Alvin V. Martin, Granite
9. John Emil Jarvi, Philipsburg
10. Frank Nicholas Fessler, Philipsburg
11. Finlay Edwin Cummings, Drummond
12. George Naidon, Bearmouth
13. Bengt Alfred Salberg, Bearmouth
14. Charles William Emerson, Hall
15. Tom Basil, Bearmouth
16. Robert Metcalf, Philipsburg
17. Marvin Stiner, Drummond
18. James H. Weaver, Bearmouth
19. Bruno Barsanti, Bearmouth
20. Wingfield L. Brown Jr., Philipsburg
21. Harry Neck, Bearmouth
22. Walter Kelly, Philipsburg
23. Grazzino Benedetto, Bearmouth
       24. August Drees, Philipsburg
25. Fred Reindl, Philipsburg
26. John Vasille, Bearmouth
27. Harry A. Murphy, Philipsburg
28. George Edward Hamm, Philipsburg
29. J. L. W. Herron, Philipsburg
30. Russell N. Hall, Drummond
31. Vincent C. Winninghoff, Philipsburg
32. Alfred Hebert, Drummond
33. Earl Edward Myers, Spokane
34. William J. Enman, Drummond
35. Dennis Heaney, Granite
36. Edward J. Smith, Philipsburg
37. George Petrovich, Granite
38. George Bentzler, Hall
39. Ezra Nathan Roop, Hall
40. Frank Conley, Philipsburg
41. Norman Fiscas, Bearmouth
42. Hubert George Weaver, Hall
43. John Forsman, Philipsburg
44. Harry Fazen, Philipsburg
45. Duson Novkovich, Granite
46. Rodney J. Huffman, Philipsburg
47. George Palmer, Philipsburg
48. Edward Rodda, Philipsburg
49. Charles Arthur Pike, Philipsburg
50. Elmer Benson, Philipsburg
51. Henry John Sturges, Otonville, Minn.
52. James Patten, Philipsburg
53. Edwin H. Martin, Granite
54. Vasilios Bajiras, Bearmouth
55. William Olson, Maxville
56. Walter Orville McGowan, Hall
57. Aladino Pelligrini, Bearmouth
58. Raymond Augustine Pearson, Hall
59. Daniel Clyde Hannifen, Drummond
60. Charles William Topley, Hall
61. Louigio Anzevino, Drummond
62. Emmamouell Naumm, Bearmouth
63. Ribot J. Valiton, Philipsburg
64. William Walter Waite, Hall
65. Frank Gerbil, Philipsburg
66. Charles E. Johnson, Philipsburg
67. Alfred Bourbonnais, Philipsburg
68. William Howard Barnes, Drummond
69. Charles R. Bowen, Philipsburg
70. John Hansen Kolbeck, Hall
71. W. O. Cain, Philipsburg
72. August F. Schultz, Hall
73. Jullan Ellison, Philipsburg
74. George G. Stearns, Granite
75. Jure Mudrovich, Philipsburg
76. William Rayen McLure, Philipsburg
77. Otto A. Heliz, Philipsburg
78. Norman B. Townsend, Philipsburg
79. John Franklin Goldsby, Drummond
80. Walter Murphy, Drummond
81. Ahelea Zissow, Bearmouth
82. Chester W. Griffin, Philipsburg
83. Harry Percival Hanifen, Garnet
84. Sigurd Foss, Ovando
85. Harry Walter Hameyer, Philipsburg
86. Claude Eugene Haines, Spranlemills, Pa.
87. Henry Lesslley Bates, Hall
88. Alfred Johnson, Hall
89. Jesse Brazill, Drummond
90. Bruce Irving, Encanaba, Mich.
91. Leo Hendrick Holmes, Philipsburg               
92. Louis George Grassle, Boyd, Wisc.
93. Ralph Emerson Adkins, Hall
94. Matsujiro Satsukawa, Bearmouth
95. Odarfo Lenciani, Bearmouth
96. Michael Fuhrman, Hall
97. Mark Bertolino, Philipsburg
98. Albert Fridoff Sherman, Philipsburg
99. Thomas Montas, Bearmouth
100. Harry Johnson, Philipsburg
101. Allan MacDonald, Philipsburg
102. Frank Weatherford, Drummond
103. Patrick O’Loughlin, Philipsburg
104. Lewis E. Bolich, Hall
105. Percy Spencer Dodge, Drummond
106. Francis Victor Hoehne, Garnet
107. Norman Thoreson, Philipsburg
108. George Gordon McLean, Seattle, Wash.
109. Frederick William Bentz, Shermerville, Ill.
110. Harold McDonel, Philipsburg
111. William Bray, Philipsburg
112. George Duwe, Hall
113. Harold Wise, Granite
114. John William Johnson, Hall
115. Jim Biasil, Bearmouth
116. Joseph P. Buchanan, Bearmouth
117. Stewart Henry Watson, Hall
118. Bart Fabum, Philipsburg
119. William Francis Manley, Hall
120. Peter Pappas, Bearmouth
The explanation for the town listed beside the name, outside of Granite County, is when the draft notice was put into effect, those persons who were away from their home address, were instructed to go to the closest draft sign up area and fill out the forms and they would then be sent to their local draft office. My grandfather, William F. Bentz, who lived on Rock Creek, listed here as Frederick William Bentz, must have been in his native born state of Illinois, for a family matter at the time of registration. He was never drafted, because he was a rancher and had a wife and two children to feed at that time.
In the same issue of the Philipsburg Mail, was the Headline:
Vimy Ridge Veteran in Philipsburg. Private Williard Hambleton, an American boy who fought for the gallant Canadians in France and has been honorably discharged for wounds received in the storming of Vimy Ridge, arrived in the city yesterday afternoon. Private Hambleton spent sixteen months of the hardest kind of fighting in the trenches and was shot in the legs by machine gun fire, and he also had a nine inch gash in his body received in the famous charge of the Canadian troops on the Somme last November. He has been telling the story of his wonderful experiences all over the coast on behalf of the Red Cross and Liberty Loan. .. (He) will appear in person at the McDonald Theatre tonight at nine o’clock. Don’t miss hearing the wonderful story of his sixteen months in the trenches.
Colonel Frank D. “Sandbar” Brown, visited the east and came back to talk about the war activities. There were 61,000 tents, immediately being made under contract in Philadelphia. Men were seen everywhere in uniform.
A local issue of the times is headlined in the August 24, 1917 Philipsburg Mail:
MINERS WALK OUT ON STRIKE
Several hundred miners employed at mines in the Philipsburg district, went on strike last week, for an increase in wages. On Thursday August 17, they held and organized a miner’s union named Philipsburg Metal Mine Worker’s Union, with Henry Phillips, secretary and Alfred Colvin treasurer. Kroger’s Hall was secured as a meeting place, with meetings held there to discuss and consider the strike situation. The strike was precipitated when the boarding houses, posted notice that on Monday board and lodging would be advanced to $45.00 a month, so to offset the increased cost of living, they asked for an advance of $1.00, which would raise miner’s wages to $5.50 a day. After taking the matter into consideration, the mine operators, on Monday issued the following statement:
To the Philipsburg Mine Employees;
In response to the request of the mine workers for an increased wage, the operators, after careful investigation and consideration, have decided upon the following wage scale:
Nature of work per eight hour shift
Miners and other underground employees:
Other than shaft miners               $4.50
Shaft miners                                $5.00
Blacksmiths                                 $5.00
Timber framers                            $5.00
Surface laborers                           $4.00
In support of the above wage scale the operators submit the following facts:

Since August 1, the manganese market has declined five cents per unit...The Interstate Commerce Commission has granted the railroads an increase of fifteen percent in freight rates. This increase to become effective September 1. An increase in the wage scale would make impossible the marketing of large quantities of low grade ore now being shipped. Most of the prospecting and development work would be impossible under an increased wage scale. Thereby not only materially decreasing the number of men employed, but also seriously interfering with the search for new ore bodies. We find the above wage scale to be consistent with those in effect in other mining districts. We find the cost of living to be no greater than in districts working under equal wage scales…
That evening the miners after long deliberation decided to continue the strike.
On August 24, 1917, a letter published from Leland True, written to a friend, stated he was in Calexico, California, guarding the Mexican border and complained about the heat.
Also, F. M. Fulkeson sent a letter to his parents from the front lines in France and described how he had been standing behind an old barn, while under heavy fire, holding his bible and something told him to run. He ran about 100 yards away and got down into an old shell hole. After, about a minute, a shell hit the barn and area where he had been standing. He had forgotten it was the fourth of July, because no one celebrates it in Europe, and hoped to be home, by the next fourth.
The August 24, 1917, Philipsburg Mail, announced more young men were called to serve. Out of the list of ninety six men called, those passing the examination were: Axel Ecklund, Philipsburg, Roy Hayward, Philipsburg, William David Barrieth, Philipsburg, Carl Knoch, Philipsburg, Orville William Mayfield, Philipsburg, Ed Duffy, Philipsburg, James Walter Logan, Drummond, Robert M. Kaiser, Philipsburg, John Walter Kaiser, Philipsburg, Marko Bubalo, Philipsburg, Ed Ely, Drummond, Augustic Charles Cole, Maxville, Edward Waldbillig, Drummond, John Nygard, Philipsburg, Peter Furhman, Hall, Clifford Hall, Maxville, Ben Albert Swenson, Anaconda, William Silas Hanley, Hall, John Buchanan, Bearmouth, Conrad Satherberg, Philipsburg.
The same issue of the Mail carried the following:
Postmistress Clara D. McDonel is in receipt of two communications. One from Harry E. Mitchell, assistant recruiting officer at Spokane, Washington, stating that: From present indications Montana will not have to bother with conscription at the second drawing--especially if volunteers continue to roll in for another six weeks as they have done recently. Let's all get together and try to make Montana the high state in volunteers and absolutely avoid any possibility of a second draft. The Aviation section offers a chance for a man to learn a trade, to go to France, to be near the great battle line and yet not in the trenches. Men are not promised they will be taught to fly, but a man of judgment, steady nerve and determination has an excellent chance to gain a commissioned grade by sheer merit on the field of battle--the most glorious way to win a commission. The Medical Department offers chances to men of different temperament, and the infantry a still further variation. The Quartermasters Corps--a non-combatant branch--offers chances for supply men and cooks. There is an alarming demand for cooks and bakers and men who want to become cooks and bakers. 
A second notice received by the postmistress was a request by the U.S. Engineer Corps requesting stenographers, draftsmen and book-keepers for service in France. The salary for book-keepers and general clerks was $1,000 to $1200 a year plus rations, quarters, medical treatment and transportation expenses were provided. Fifty draftsmen for topographical and mechanical work would receive a salary of $1,500 to $1,800. Men of draft age would not be accepted for the positions.
The August 31, 1917, Philipsburg Mail, carried the following list of men that would report for duty after September 19, as they had passed all of their examinations: F.N. Fessler, Philipsburg, R.A. Salberg, Spokane, Washington, James H. Weaver. Bearmouth, W. L. Brown Jr., Philipsburg, August Drees, Wabasha, Minn., V.C. Winninghoff, Philipsburg, Dennis Heaney, Philipsburg, Edward J. Smith, Philipsburg, George Petrovich, Philipsburg, Ezra Nathan Roop, Hall, John A. Forsman, Philipsburg, Harry Fazen, Philipsburg, George Palmer, Garnet, Walter Orville McGowan, Hall, D.C. Hannifen, Drummond and William Howard Barnes, Drummond.
Two of the men, Frank ‘Stub” Fessler and James Weaver, were ordered to report September 5 to the mobilization camp at American Lake, Washington. They were given a great party on September 4, by their friends with a parade and a sit down, six course meal for sixty guests, at the Model Café, with a speech by Judge George B. Winston. A gift of twenty eight bottles of champagne from Mssrs. Ottmann and Knatz was gratefully accepted by the merry makers.
Another noteworthy announcement that week was silver sold at $1.00 per ounce. Also fifty thousand Mexican dollars were stacked in a broker's office in New York, waiting to be melted into bullion. Usually worth only fifty cents, they were now worth seventy five cents at the prevailing prices. The high price was due to an increased demand for metal coinage as gold, had been withdrawn, from circulation.
According to the September 6, 1917, Mail, Chairman Dent of the Defense Department stated the following numbers were all volunteer prior to the draft being instituted
78,828 officers
741,053 enlisted men (in the regular Army)
141,867 enlisted men
41,473 reserves
14, 500 naval militia (in the Navy)
5,090 Coast Guard
6,400 Hospital Corps
Total enlisted 209,340
29,971 Marine
1,070 Reserves
904 Naval volunteers
12,000 Officers in Navy
1,166 Marines
Total 1,074,146 and there was not a drafted soldier in a single camp.
Harry True returned on September 10, from a trip to San Diego, to visit his son Leland who is with the 21st infantry Co. G. Other boys in the same company were Angus McDonald and Roger Bull. Mr. True brought back a report that the boys were treated well at the beautiful exposition grounds and restrictions were not severe.
Also noted September 14th was Emmett Carey sold his Trout Creek ranch on September 12, to a Mr. Sutherland from Arlee, Montana, and that Dr. E.E. Beal has bought out the dental practice of Dr. C.A. Pike, located over the Philipsburg Mail.
A long list of job vacancies was posted in the September 21, issue of the Philipsburg Mail. The positions ranged from $2.80 a day for general helper at Puget Sound Naval Yards, in Bremerton, Washington to $3,600 a year, for a mechanical engineer in artillery ammunition. Many of the jobs were for ammunition inspection and packing. Transportation would be advanced if the applicant signed a six month contract.
Also, on September 21, a public reception was held for the soldiers reporting for duty on the 23. The band played, refreshments were served and short speeches were given by leading citizens. The following men were added to the previous list of fifteen ordered to ship out on the 23rd: Chris Nagel, Hall, August F. Schultz, Hall, John F. Goldsby, Drummond, Chester W. Griffin, Philipsburg, A.F. Sherman, Philipsburg, Patrick O’Laughlin, Philipsburg. The last two would not go if the other five all reported.
Twenty more men were called to report to duty on October 3. The notice stated forty percent of the Granite County quota beginning October 3, would be sent to American Lake, Washington.“This installment is to be made up exclusively of white men. Signed Greenan.[ii]
The names of the men drafted are as follows (These names were previously listed, when they passed their physicals): John A. Forsman, Philipsburg, John Basil, Bearmouth, John Vassili, Bearmouth, Norman Fiscas, Bearmouth, Ahelae Zissow, Bearmouth, C.E. Haines, Philipsburg, Michael Furhman, Philipsburg, Thomas Montes, Bearmouth, Patrick O’Laughlin, Philipsburg, P.S. Dodge, Drummond, Harold McDonel, Philipsburg, Wm. F. Manley, Hall, Axel Ecklund, Philipsburg, John Miller, Butte, Dragen Starcevich, Philipsburg, Constanino Zappa, Philipsburg, W.D. Bareith, Philipsburg, Carl Knoch, Philipsburg, Collins T. Putnam, Ennis, Montana, O.W. Mayfield, Philipsburg, Ed Duffy, Philipsburg, J.W. Logan, Drummond, Vuko Vukicevic, Philipsburg, John Walter Kaiser, Philipsburg, Marko Bubalo, Philipsburg, Ed Ely, Drummond, Augustus Cole, Maxville, Ed Waldbillig, Drummond, John Buchanan, Bearmouth. Nine extra names were listed in case some of the first twenty failed to report.
Congressman Evans urged that 75% of excess profits and 50% of the income of every man in the U.S. should be taken in taxes in order to win the war stated an article published in the Philipsburg Mail, September 28, 1917. The congressman also urged passage of the Senate bill to draft all aliens into the army. He used the following statistics: 10,000 boys have been drafted from Montana; 12,000 aliens remain in the state taking Montana jobs.
Frank “Sandbar” Brown requested that  member’s of the Society of Pioneers, see that every young man in the service received at least one local newspaper. As a sign of the times, there were no more comments about the miners strike in any of the weekly issues of the Mail.
In a letter to his parents, published October 5th, Leland True wrote he made Sergeant Baker at Presidio San Francisco and that R. Hibbard, who enlisted with him, was in Dayton, Ohio.
The second Liberty Loan was expected to be over subscribed by at least $2,000,000.00. Granite County belonged to the 9th Federal Reserve District and the campaign would begin on October 8, stated the October 5, Philipsburg Mail. This date changed to October 15th by the October 12, issue of the Mail. Granite County's allotment quota was $120,000.00. Any purchase of bonds up to $5,000 would be tax free. None of the articles stated the interest rate but explained that if the rate increased on another campaign, the bond holder could exchange the bonds, for the higher rate.
There was another request for Red Cross members, in the October 12th Mail, stating you cannot be 100% American if you do not become a member:
The Red Cross is nearly perfect in its distributing organization so that misshipment (sic) or diversion of supplies is nearly impossible.
The October 19, Philipsburg Mail, stated the Bill passed to suspend the annual $400.00 assessment work on mining claims, and Congressman Evans, announced  the miner must file by December 31 for 1917 and 1918, with the County Clerk and Recorder, that they own the claim and desire to take advantage of the new law.
Mayor McClees issued a notice there had been a proclamation issued by President Wilson and Governor Stewart for October 24, to be Liberty Day---all businesses would be closed by 12 noon to devote time and attention to the cause. The cause being the raising of $120,000 in Granite County.
A letter received by Mrs. P.W. Merrifield, from her brother Joe Porter, stationed in France, was published in the October 19th, Mail. He stated Charles Drury, of Drummond was with him and they were allowed to write only once a week.  Joe had received a letter from Emery Jones and he was at Fort Missoula. Joe requested, everyone be notified to send tobacco or cigarettes to the soldiers in France as that was all the soldiers could not get over there .
In the same issue was the announcement:
There must be a Christmas box sent to every Granite County soldier, so a committee has been formed to inform all the fraternal societies, clubs, orders and individuals that donations are earnestly being solicited…This is a matter in which everyone must have a part.
Rural Districts were complimented on their good work as they had raised over $600.00 for the soldiers Christmas boxes, stated the Woman’s Patriotic Society. Also, the YMCA fund requested every man, woman, and child give as the county had to raise $500.00 to help with the $35,000,000 needed to assist the cause of the American soldier.
Another  article stated what can and cannot be sent in the soldiers Christmas boxes with a suggestion that articles cost approximately $1.50, such as: Khaki colored handkerchiefs that are  27 inches square, Writing pad, Envelopes, Postals, Pencils, Home made scrapbook containing short stories and clippings from the paper, Electric torch, Compass, Playing cards, other games, Tobacco, Pipe and pipe cleaners, Cigarette papers, Water tight match box, Chewing gum, Sweet chocolate biscuits, Fruit cake, Fruited crackers, Pocket knife, Mouth organ, Steel mirror, Checker board, Cribbage board, Preserved ginger, Salted nuts, Figs or dates, Hard candy, Puzzles.
Also, an article stated the Ladies of Philipsburg, started constructing eighty comfort kits for the Granite County boys. Many of the fillings had already been promised by patriotic people and the public was being appealed to for further assistance. They requested scissors, tooth brushes, small combs, needles, thread, darning cotton, collapsible drinking cups, razors and metal mirrors.
The October 26, 1917 headlines stated:
THE FIFTEENTH CAVALRY RETURNS TO THE STATES
This related to a letter received by Judge D. H. Mellon of Maxville, from his son John T. Mellon. The letter was written on board the U.S. transport Logan en-route to San Francisco from a trip to the Philippines. John described the onboard duties of sea travel and gave descriptors of the barrios of bamboo houses in Manila. He described the services of the YMCA, including their excellent library, pool room, swimming pool, bowling alley and motion picture shows. They were in Manila for a month and a half before being ordered back to the States. He went on to describe their trip over, including stops in Nagasaki, Pearl Harbor and Honolulu. Describing how the young boys would swim out and come aboard the ship and dive from the ship rigging. After 2 days of wandering around Honolulu they put out for Guam, then Manila and up the Pasig River to Fort McKinley. At the time he wrote the letter they had been through some rough weather and were currently rambling on to ‘Frisco at the rate of 300 miles a day. He described in great detail the shortage of chewing tobacco, and did not know where he would be after reaching San Francisco, but expected to “be on the hurricane deck of a bronco down on the Mexican border or somewhere in France”.
The Liberty Loan Day was a success and they believed the $120,000 quota for Granite County would be over-subscribed by a safe margin. The following subscriptions were reported by C.E. Anderson, County chairman of the Liberty Loan Committee:
First State Bank of Philipsburg $28,000, Philipsburg State Bank $20,000, Granite County Bank of Hall $ 5,000, Anaconda Copper Mining Company $25,000, Drummond State Bank $10,000, Northern Pacific R.R. Co $29,200, Apportioned from State $ 1,500. Making a total of $119,500.
Of the amount received by the First State Bank, $1,300 was solicited by the Woman’s Club of Philipsburg, who also turned some of their subscriptions, in at the Philipsburg State Bank. The northern part of the county as well as rural area was yet to be heard from, and the entire state felt they had met their quota.
The fourth contingent, was notified to report to the court house at 3:30 o’clock for military services and be entrained for Camp Lewis, at American Lake, Washington on November 3, 1917.They were: John McDougal, C.T. Putnam, O.W. Mayfield, Ed Duffy, J.W. Logan, Joe Lee Bellm, Pontilimon Prica, John Walter Kaiser, Marco Bubalo and Ed Ely.
Food Pledge week was going to be a success stated Herbert Hoover, food administrator, and some states believed they were going to be able to enroll every family in the state. Also, the Ladies of Philipsburg were working hard to obtain donations from all men and women in Granite County, to assure that every soldier received a Christmas package. They were donating to the Red Cross, so that Christmas boxes would get to the boys in the trenches somewhere in France. A list was published, of all the young men drafted and a request for their correct mailing addresses was solicited, for all those, not at Fort Lewis, to assure they would receive their box.[iii]
On November 1, the Theatre Admission War Tax went into effect, through out the United States. The McDonald Theatre, explained how the tax would be collected in Philipsburg:
The regular price of admission, 10 and 20 cents will remain in force. The government requires a tax of 1 cent for each 10 cents or fraction thereof paid for admission, so on the 10 cent ticket one cent goes to pay the tax and 9 cents pays for the show; On a 20 cent ticket, 2 cents is the amount of tax and 18 cents is the share of the exhibitor….when one reflects that every time he buys a ticket to a show he is helping Uncle Sam in the present national crisis he may easily consider that frequent attendance at the movies is a patriotic duty.
At the meeting of the Ladies of Philipsburg they decided to ask every man and woman in Granite County:
for as large a donation as they feel able to give toward our soldier boy’s Christmas boxes, so that every soldier from granite county may be remembered…committees were then appointed to thoroughly canvas the town, and another committee will see that each school district will be solicited for help in filling these boxes.
Following this announcement was a list of the known soldiers and a request for their current addresses. The list omitted the names Mike Duffy and Tom Parfitt, as was noted in the November 16, issue of the Mail.
It was announced two new men, were added to the list of those entrained: Eugene Lutz, enlisted at North Yakima and Carl Franzman, left November 8, for Camp Lewis. Allen McKenzie, returned from American Lake, to visit his parents, as he was discharged secondary to defective eye sight.
To the communities delight, Col. F. D. “Sandbar” Brown received a commission from Governor Stewart, as Official Visitant to Camp Lewis. His duties would be to assist the boys from Montana, now in the Army. 
There was a letter from Hugh McDonald, to his father P.H. McDonald that stated he was now a Sergeant-major at American Lake and felt he had what is considered one of the best non-commissioned officers’ job available at American Lake. His pay would be twice as much as what he originally received. Also 8,000 men had been transferred from American Lake to New York, to fill up National Guard regiments. He was two blocks away from Wink Brown, and had been near to (J.L.W.) Herron, Pat McDonald and Harold McDonel, until they were transferred to New York. Because life insurance through the military was so cheap, he had bought the limit of $10,000, for about $7.00 a month. He also enclosed the following poem written by one of his pals Gene O’Heron, about 30 minutes before the banquet in honor of those going to New York.
Musing of a recruit
Remember the night that we landed,
When they herded us into a pen,
Then marched us around in a circle
Tll the hour of--heavens knows when.
Well we got here and bunked here together.
And groaned in chorus next day,
When they jingled a whistle at daybreak
And made us crawl out of the hay.
They scratched us and shot us and drilled us,
Then drilled us and shot us some more,
We tried mighty hard to keep smiling,
Though we were most terribly sore.
Since that time we have picked up a little
In the drill and our dress and our look,
But all that we knew of the business,
Would not fill a very large book.
But we’ll plug and we’ll drill till we get it,
And then we’ll fill happy for fair,
And go to the front with the colors
And not be ashamed that we’re there.
For they slipped us a prince for a Captain,
And our Lieuts are right in that class;
So we fared pretty well for a starter,
And our luck is not going to pass.
Though we part for the Nonce--we should worry,
We will fight just as hard for “Old Sam”.
When Bill sees Montana a-coming,
He’ll make for the woods---with a “Damn!

Clerk of the District Court, W.B. Calhoun, received letters from a number of Granite County boys and gave permission for the Mail, to publish excerpts from some of them to allow the readers to learn something about the boy’s whereabouts.
Elmer Benson, a proprietor of the M&M Café, before he enlisted in the Naval Militia, was in charge of the Naval cooking at the U.S. Naval training camp, in Seattle. He received the highest rate of pay possible, for one staying stateside. Three hundred boys had been sent from there to France and 700 more were slated to leave, within the next 6 weeks. He enclosed a paper, the camp boys published and the menus of the meals he served, to the boys on Saturday November 17 and Sunday November 18. 
Julius Troeltzsch wrote he had been commissioned Second Lieut of the Infantry Reserves Corps and was now a drill instructor at Camp Dodge Iowa. He stated 25,000 men at the camp bought a total of $1,400,000 bonds during the Liberty Loan campaign. He also enclosed the address of Austin Jarvis, a former Philipsburg boy, who was now a Sergeant in the 348th Field Artillery, Lewis Branch, at Tacoma, Washington.
William C. (Clayton) Hull was in El Paso, Texas, with the Thirteenth Field Artillery, at Camp Fort Bliss, stated he was still a buck private and liked his job now, better than a cannoneer, which he was first assigned. He stated:
Villa is making things pretty hot down in Mexico. We don’t know when we are going across the big pond. That will be some ride.
Mrs. P.W. Merrifield published the following poem:              

Good-bye Montana
Good-bye, Montana, good-bye, United States
I am leaving home today, but to you I will be true
I’ll fight for the Red, White, and Blue,
Always waving o’er my home, no matter where I roam.
Good-bye, dear old Montana, I must go away, they say.
But I’ll surely do my best
For my home out in the west,
For the land I love the best;
And I always will be true to my dear Red, White, and Blue.
Good-bye to those I love and the friends so kind and true,
For I will often, very often, think of you,
Away off here, alone, away from friends and home,
Write dear ones, please write; it will cheer us while we fight
For the land we love so well--Montana and our own United States.
An Announcement in the November 30, Mail stated Captain J. M. Kelso Jr., notified all recruiting officers in the Spokane District, which includes Philipsburg that:
no acceptance of registered men shall be made after December 10. All registered men, not having been called, and who desire to enlist in the army, must be in Spokane not later than the morning of December 12. They must each have a statement from their local board that they have not been called, and their registration certificate. After that time no men registered, whether called or not, can be accepted. The following branches are open for enlistment: field artillery, coast artillery, engineers, signal corps (including aviation section), medical department, and quartermaster corps for cooks and bakers in the regular army, and for supply companies, mechanical repair units, etc. in the national army…This is the last chance to volunteer in the branch of the army one prefers.
In preparation for our young men overseas the Ladies of the WCTU announced to the people of Granite County, that the comfort kits for the soldier’s were finished and equipped as follows: Khaki covered Testament with Psalms, home songs, postal cards and pencils, buttons, and white and black thread, white, black and khaki and darning cotton, pins, safety pins and needles, toothbrush, soap, and wash cloth, scissors, and metal mirrors.  Thirteen were made in blue for the sailors and seventy eight in Khaki for the army boys. Kits would be sent to all Granite County boys, whose addresses could be found, whether enlisted or drafted from this county, except the boys who are positively known to have received kits from relatives and friends. More will be made and equipped as required.[iv]
The Mailing Committee of the Woman’s Patriotic Association requested anyone knowing the address of the following to please send the address to Clerk of Court Wm. B. Calhoun or Mrs. E.L. Perey, of the committee: Millard Thresher, Fred C. Schmetz, John Douglas Stratton, Tom Basil, E.E. Meyers, Axel Ecklund, C. Zappa, Dragan Starcevich, and Russell Carnes.
The year ended with a letter received by Mrs. P. W. Merrifield from her brother Joe. S. Porter, with the Fifth Field Artillery, American Expeditionary Forces in France. The letter was dated November 27 and was published on December 28th. He stated they were settling into winter quarters, near the front lines and one of their batteries had lost two men and four wounded, but the infantry who came in before them had heavy losses. Joe continued: 
I can’t express how a fellow feels when he hears a whistling Willie go over his head, especially the first one (A Willie is a shell from the size of eight inches upwards). It sure is some experience. You even think of what Sherman said. But after a while you get so you hardly hear them. I had quite a treat yesterday, a cigar from Montana and two real American cookies. I don’t think the French girls will stand much of a show with the girl who made those cookies, in fact I don’t think that very many of them will have any kind of a show, from the cakes, cookies, tobacco and presents of all kinds that I saw come through the mail yesterday.
Herman Allison, a native of Philipsburg, enlisted in Seattle and passed through Missoula on his way to Camp Devens, Mass. Mrs. Rebecca Allison, his mother accompanied him as far as Butte, stated an excerpt from the New Northwest, Missoula on December 21, 1917. Later news stated he was immediately transferred to the 447th Depot detachment and expected to leave soon. He was a 1913, graduate of Montana State University and employed with the Puget Sound Light, Water and Traction Company, for the past year and recently promoted to assistant to the general manager, of the company.
Attempting to keep with the holiday spirit a “Holiday reception” was held by Miss Louise McLeod, for Angus McDonald, home on furlough from San Diego.
“Your dollars for defense” was the headline stating that to raise the quota needed in Montana to meet the $9,450,710 in War Savings and Thrift Stamps every man, woman and child in the state must give $16.50 in the Philipsburg Mail, January 18, 1918. The article elaborated on how the soldiers did not complain when they were called and everyone at home must lend their savings to the government, to assist these soldiers, in their fight for all of us.
The Woman’s Patriotic Association received many letters from the soldiers thanking them for the gifts they received at Christmas and the Association, kindly allowed the Philipsburg Mail, to publish the following brief extracts:
Wish you would extend my sincere thanks to the Red Cross ladies for sending me so nice a Christmas Box, signed Corporal Wingfield (Wink) Brown;
 …Many many thanks for it (The Xmas package received today). You don’t realize how much I appreciate a remembrance from my home county… signed Percy Dodge;
On behalf of my bungalo (sic) mates and myself, I beg to acknowledge receipt of the package you sent, which was ,most heartily welcome and enjoyed to the fullest….We beg to remain, yours and Uncle Sam’s, at Service and in peace, signed Walter Wickberg;
I am writing…to thank you for the lovely Christmas box sent me as a token of remembrance from Granite County folks. It surely filled my heart with good cheer, my stomach with satisfaction, and my brain with memories of the old home town. What more could a soldier ask?…, signed George T. Cartier, who was attending officer’s school, after originally enlisting in the 1st Reg. Pennsylvania Calvary and then being transferred to the artillery regiment in the 28th Division;
This afternoon’s mail brought me the package you kindly sent containing tobacco and writing paper, and I want to thank you very much and assure you that your kindness in thinking of me will never be forgotten… signed  H.A. Crowley, U.S.S. Tillamook;
I received the Christmas box that you so kindly sent me…Christmas this year will be quite a different one than that which our boys are acquainted, but I hope that next Christmas will see world-wide democracy and our boys back in their homes…signed Raymond Kerlaouezo;
I received your Christmas box…We leave for the war zone some time this month…to chase the Kaiser’s sea dogs, signed Neil P. Hickey.
Neil was a grandson of pioneer Hugh O’Neil written about in another chapter. Kerlaouezo and Hickey were both stationed at the Naval Camp, at Mare Island, California;
If I may ask a favor of you, please thank the Red Cross ladies for us. We know now that we are not forgotten by those dear ones at home. The Red Cross is sure a great help to the boys who are going to the front. The people at home do not realize what the men in the trenches are up against, and it is hard to explain the conditions as there are rules which we are governed by in writing to outside friends. All the Montana boys who were drafted are in what is called the 2nd Montana regiment. We hope to be kept together during the war, so that if anything happens to any of us there will always be someone to write back home…We would also like one of the home papers, as there is practically no reading material here for us signed  Otto Helix and Tom Parfitt (Camp Merritt, New Jersey); 
To the folks of Granite County and home, I can’t express my thanks for the nice Xmas box, I received today from the commanding officer. The man it was sent to had left the fort for somewhere in America and it was passed on to me and a bunch of other Montana boys, and they are all as thankful as I am. We enjoy anything that is home-made more than anything else, as it brings back memories of home and we know we are not forgotten” Joseph W. Kau (Fort George Wright);
A letter from Angus McDonald was reserved for next week “as it was full of the cheery nonsense which makes him such a popular favorite with everyone”. Unfortunately the next issue did not publish the letter.
On January 25, 1918 a letter was published from Ed Duffy to his parents Mr. and Mrs. John Duffy, that stated he was safe and somewhere in Europe. Also, four other Philipsburg boys were with him: Walter Kaiser, Norman Townsend, Joe Bellm and Collins Putnam.
The same week, Roy McJilton’s letter to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. C.E. McJilton, was published stating he was in California (Palo Alto) at Camp Fremont, working in the operating room and taking care of the operating tools. They had 300 sick men to care for with 8,000 infantry there and 22,000 coming in.
The Granite County High School had a thirty three star flag that represented the following students: Herman Allison, Wingfield Brown, George Cartier, Arthur Crowley, Will Gregovich, Roy Henzie, Austin Jarvis, Walter Kaiser, Harold McDonel, Angus McDonald, John Morrison, Roy McJilton, Neil McPhail, Julius Troeltzsch, Kenneth Lundie, Vincent Winninghoff, Roger Bull, James Brown, Charles Collins, Frank Conley, Neil Hickey, William Harris, Armand Kerlaouezo, Wallace Keiley,  Hugh J. McDonald, Hugh A. McDonald, Dan McDougal, Earle McJilton, John McDougal, Robert Perey, Victor Johnson, Harry Knatz .
Special recognition was given to the many agencies that had answered the governments call and stepped up to assist the service men, during this period of war. An article published in the Philipsburg Mail, January 25, 1918 acknowledged the Red Cross Society, The Y.M.C.A. War Work Council, The Y.W.C.A. War Work Council, The War Camp Community Recreation Work, The Food Conservation, The Thrift Campaign, and the War Work and War Time Committee’s, of every local church were commended for their heartening encouragement, to the men who went to the front and to their families back home. The article, went on to explain that the Woman’s Patriotic Association of Philipsburg, organized May 21, 1917, had completed many tasks and was working toward forming into a Red Cross Chapter. As of this date they had sent five shipments of supplies to the front hospitals. These supplies consisted of: 147 flannel bandages, 182 comfort pillows, 850 gauze bandages, 185 slings, 12,375 compresses for a total of 13, 739 articles made by the women of Philipsburg.
Published next was the following announcement:
Wheatless and porkless days must be actually observed in Montana. This state must join in the national program by reducing wheat consumption by 30%. If we fail we aid the enemy at a critical time. War needs must govern every meal,
This was in the foreword of a statement, issued by Prof. Alfred Atkinson of Bozeman, the Federal Food Administrator, in Montana. He had just returned from a conference in Washington, D.C. Due to small crops in Europe the military believed the Neutrals would suffer badly by spring, making it imperative, America provide as much meat and wheat as we could to the military cause.
Headlines in the Philipsburg Mail for February 1, 1918 were: “Alien Enemy Registration”.
 The article described in depth what an alien was and they must register at the Postmasters in the smaller communities and the Police station in the larger cities like Butte, Missoula, Helena and Great Falls.
The government was asking for 386,000 ship builders to begin work in the next year. Anyone handy with tools, with a desire to render patriotic service and earn a good wage should sign up with the local enrollment agent for The Public Service Reserve. William B. Calhoun had been appointed County Director of the Public Service Reserve and would be appointing local agents, in every town in the county, in the near future.
To win the war we must build ships faster than the enemy can sink them, so every mechanic, not now engaged in an industry absolutely essential to the conduct of the war, or who can be spared from his present employment should immediately enroll.
Also published on the first of February was:
The Battle Cry of Feed “Em   By Fred Emerson Brooks
Yes, we’ll rally round the farm, boys.
We’ll rally once again,
Shouting the battle cry of Feed ‘Em;
We’ve got the ships and money
And the best of fighting men,
Shouting the battle cry of Feed ‘Em.
The onions forever, the beans and the corn
Down with the ‘tater--it’s up the next morn---
While we rally round the plow, boys,
And take the hoe again,
Shouting the battle cry of Feed ‘Em.
The Philipsburg Mail on February 8, 1918, stated the Anaconda Standard, published a picture of Lieut. Julius Troelizsch, former Philipsburg resident, stating he entered Fort Snelling Officer Training May 13, 1917 and graduated as 2nd Lieut. August 15, 1917.
William B. Calhoun appointed the following men as agents for the Public Service Reserve, in Granite County: F.A. Davey, Garnet District, Andrew J. Henry, Bearmouth District, P. C. Aller, Drummond District, F.M. Morse, Hall District, J.H.M. Florey, Maxville District, Mr. Calhoun, Philipsburg District.
A special session of the legislature was called by Governor Stewart, to declare and describe:
pernicious activities of individuals and organizations guilty of sabotage, criminal syndicalism, and industrial and political anarchy and define seditious, treasonable and disloyal utterances and acts and provide punishment. The session will also deal with providing a method whereby our military can vote at elections and amend the current seed grain law so as to bond counties in order to provide seed grain to needy farmers.
A letter received from Private Earle McJilton, written January 28, 1918, was published in the Philipsburg Mail, February 8, 1918.
Received the Philipsburg Mail and you can imagine how much I appreciate the paper. It surely makes a fellow proud to read how splendidly our folks are behind us fellows who have entered the army. My only regret is that I am not in a Montana Company, but of course it’s all toward the same end…My brother George is in the engineer’s enlisted reserve here. Only the upper one-third of the student engineers, that is, scholarship standing, were accepted. These fellows will be allowed to complete their courses, after which they are automatically thrown into service.
We have had a very severe winter here and surely envy you folks your Montana weather. Most people here think of Montana as the coldest place on earth, but I’m a good booster, and by means of newspaper clippings have convinced them that I wouldn’t trade our little Granite County for the whole of Iowa and its corn.
The clerk of the Golden Rule Store, Irene McLure, received a letter from Mr. and Mrs. Valiton, who traveled to Washington, D.C. and stopped to see Sid Grigg at Camp University, but he had already been shipped overseas. They saw Lyle Wilson, though who was in D.C. buying stock and stated:
It was anything but a picnic as prices are higher than ever and many items in various lines are not to be had at any figure.
In a letter to another friend Mrs. Valiton continued:
We have been very fortunate so far in our traveling, when one considers the conditions back here. People in the west do not know how well off they are compared to the people here. Here they can get only one pound of sugar at one time, and that does not mean each day either. They have been out of coal (we had our taste of that last winter) yet everyone seems cheerful and is trying to do his bit.
Also in the Philipsburg Mail, of February 8, 1918, was a news item from the Winfield (Iowa) Beacon:
Mrs. Gambell was telling us about her grandson, Donald Butter the other day.  Like thousands of other young men, he enlisted and set his stakes to make good and help win the war. His effort have proven successful, and his title is now Lieutenant-Commander of Navy. He wears the insignia the Maple leaf, same as a Major. At present he is at Annapolis but will soon go to France.
The Mail, continued on to explain that Donald is the nephew of Mrs. F.C. Burks and the son of Mr. and Mrs. J.B. Butter, former residents of Philipsburg, when Mr. Butter, was the pastor of the Presbyterian Church.
Four of Miss Edith Featherman’s, fourth grade students earned a war stamp and were saving for another. They were Leslie Herring, Gertrude Lutz, Murray McDonald, and Margaret Hanson. Frequent remarks overheard from the youngsters walking home after school demonstrated the pride they had with little green stamps on a thrift card and they felt it made them a regular fellar. When the feat of a full war stamp is achieved “mere words fail to express the pride and pleasure with which it is exhibited”.
To date the fourth grader’s had loaned to their government $96.63, which included the four with a war stamp plus three with Liberty bonds as follows: Willie Duffy $25.00, David Bays $25.00, and Anna Fisk $5.00. Other children with thrift stamps included: Edwin Carmichael $2.00, Gertrude Lutz 74 cents, Murray McDonald 75 cents, Lora Johnson 50 cents, Eva Simmell $2.00, Leslie Herring $2.25, Gilmore Carmichael $1.75, Edna McDonald 50 cents, Enid McDonald 50 cents, Clella Owens $1.25, Anna Fisk $1.25, Elmer Anderson $1.25, Fern Kennedy 25 cents, David Bays $1.25, Muriel Hastings $1.00, Effie Doniphan $1.00, Sarah Gorman 75 cents, Willie Duffy 50 cents, Walter Johnson 25 cents.
In the same issue of the Mail, another urgent call was made by the Defense Department to Senator N.J. Mershon, for ship builders. “To win the war our first need is ships, and to build the ships our first need is earnest skilled labor.”
Next, headlines read: “Southern Cross People Loyal” with an article following the headline that detailed the Southern Cross community was without a teacher, as described thusly by the Anaconda Standard, on Wednesday (February 13):
James H. Johnstone lost his teaching position, when he refused to pass out thrift saving stamp literature to the students. He stated he was a Quaker and did not believe in war, in any way shape or form. After refusing to pass out the literature, he received a threatening letter that stated: “You have until February 10 to leave town. If you have not gone by that time we will not be responsible for your carcass”.

When it became known that he had received the letter, the towns' people had increased feelings and he was asked for his resignation. When he refused to surrender his job, a meeting was called and a vote of seventeen to eight in favor of his discharge was received. He was in Anaconda, putting his affairs in order and planning on returning to his former place, of residence in Fort Collins, Colorado at the time of the article on February 15, 1918.
An urgent appeal was made for spy glasses, binoculars, telescopes, chronometers, and sextants by the U.S. Navy:
Two of our local Four Minute Men showed their consistency by sending their own binoculars or field glasses as we commonly call them. Who will be next? Our Navy must have eyes. Don’t let our sailors boys go into the fight blindfolded…Just suppose that your glasses were the means of saving a whole ship load of our precious solders and sailors---would you not feel proud. Send your glasses to Assistant Secretary Roosevelt, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington D.C. Put your name and address on both the outside and inside of the package. If the instrument you send is found satisfactory after a test, you will receive a check for $1.00, as the government is prohibited from receiving any article free gratis. Your glasses will then be tagged with a metal tag bearing your name, address and key number, which number will also be put on the inside of the glass…and your glasses will be returned to you at the end of the war.
The government was good to its word and returned the glasses to the population after the war, as I know a number of families that were amazed to get them back.
Sheriff Fred Burks named A.W. Swenson of Willow Creek, as deputy Sheriff at Granite, because with the influx of people had come an increase in:
a lawless element…Mr. Swenson is a veteran of the Spanish American War who was wounded in action in the Philippines and was cited by his commanding officer for bravery in rescuing a wounded comrade while under heavy fire.
The appeal for binoculars continued in the next week’s Mail, with the tally of a survey done in the schools showing, that there were forty pairs of field glasses, in the families of children attending the Granite County schools.“Help protect our boys going over seas by lending the government your glasses.”
The Bearmouth Red Cross, submitted the following tally of work they had done: thirty three bandages, forty nine compresses, fifty eight slings, eighteen bed sheets, three pairs socks, eleven ward slippers and three sweaters and they earned $23.75, at the February 9 school house dance, thanks to Morris Weaver.
A purse of $69.50 was raised in this city for the relief of Italians rendered homeless through the invasion of Italy by the Germans, and on Saturday last February 10, Umberto Sala bought a post office money order for the amount and mailed it to Conte Della Somalglia, Presidente Croccerossa Italiana, Rome, Italy. The following countrymen and sympathizers contributed to the fund: Gaudiosa Mazza $5, Raymond Tamal $5, Umberto Sala $5, John Giulio $1, Carlo Carabuso $2, D. Vironda $1, Frank Petrini $1, Romano Saliazza $1, Emile Castuche $1, Peter Bianchetti $3, Daniel Luchinetti $1, Scaramucci Filippo $5, Batista Longhini $1, C.G. Hellebuyck $1, James Mazza $1, Luigi Mazza di G $1, Tony Capes $1, Biavaschi Giovanni $2,  Napoleon Bergamaschi $1, Barney Mazza $1.50, Giacoma Bergamaschi $1, Eugenio Bergamaschi $3, Giacomo Mazza $3,Batista Bergamaschi $1, John Berta $1, Peter Passenda $1, Giacoma Peila $1, Mark Bertolino $1, Jim Aprato $2, Joe Solari $1,  Giuseppe Dresti $1, Pietro Mazza $4, Joe Mead $3, Frank Torreano $1.50, Viterio Guizzo $1, Gabriel Franchino $1, Gabriel Cantero 50 cents.[v]
E.P. Ballard, placed a notice in the February 22, 1918, Mail, to clarify that the registrants should not be confused by the multiple classifications, received from the Defense Department. Apparently people getting a deferment due to dependents etc., then receiving a Class I  and believed they were going to be immediately called for service, were selling off their property. “If a man is given Class IV-A on dependency by the local board, and a Class I-E on agriculture by the district board, he will not be called until Class IV men are reached”.
After much controversy the Philipsburg Woman’s Patriotic Association, were released from the Missoula apron-strings and now would have a:
regularly organized and recognized chapter of the Red Cross…As soon as the necessary papers arrive…a great drive for membership will be inaugurated, and it is believed that every man, woman and child in the district will be enrolled…and unless all signs fail and we are a perfectly punk prophet, Philipsburg is going to make good and will gain for herself a real definite place on the Red Cross map.
A letter to the editor revealed, not all of Philipsburg believed in suffering for the good of the service men and H. W. Bleam made it a public issue by writing the following:
On February 2, the restaurant-keepers of Philipsburg held a meeting to consider the matter of the conservation of food, upon recommendation of the state food administration, which had issued a ruling providing for one meatless meal each day. The main question discussed at this meeting was which meal should be held each day as meatless. By unanimous vote it was agreed to hold every breakfast meatless until further notice, the hours to be from 1 am to 11 am. It was further agreed that all federal laws pertaining to the conservation of food to be fully observed.
Just to show the public what a fellow who tries to conscientiously to do his duty is sometimes up against, permit me to relate the following facts: A traveling man entered my place, the Banquet Café, last Monday morning and gave his order for ham and eggs. When told that he could have the eggs but not the ham, the traveler grew indignant and proceeded to give his opinion of a restaurant that would not serve him what he had ordered. He stated that just next door, he could get all the meat he wanted for breakfast, and to prove that he meant what he said, he drew a $5 bill and made a bet with the manager that he had been served pork-chops on Saturday, ham and eggs Sunday morning and that he could get ham and eggs then. The bet was promptly called. The traveler went into the guilty restaurant and ordered his ham and when he was served, myself and several witnesses were called in. We saw not only the traveler but several others eating meat. This restaurant served meat for dinner and also for supper.
So one restaurant in town has earned the contemptible title of slacker, and its proprietor has demonstrated that his word is as good as--the price of a ham and. The writer has filed a protest against the guilty parties with the food administrator at Helena.
Also of interest the week of February 22, 1918, was the War Saving Stamp sale exceeded the $50,000,000 mark and was selling at the rate of $2,000,000 a day nationwide.
It is only by teaching the people to save and not to compete for labor and materials with the government that we can put the whole strength of the nation into this war. This is not only our most important contribution to the war but it is the sure way to raise the required money.
Representative John Page, notified the Philipsburg Mail, March 1, 1918,that the new laws defining sabotage, and syndicalism with the punishment if found guilty of these crimes had passed the Montana Legislature and was now law. The punishments were as follows:
Criminal syndicalism and sabotage is a felony and if found guilty the person(s) face one to five years in prison and fined not less than $200 and not more than $1,000.
Also House Bill 1 passed, which defines the crime of sedition as:
Whenever the United states shall be engaged in war any person or persons who utter, print or publish any disloyal, profane, violent, scurrilous, contemptuous, slurring or abusive language about the form of government of the United states, or the constitution of the United States, or the soldiers or sailors of the United states, or the flag of the United States, or the uniform of the army or navy of the United States, or any language calculated to bring (the above)…into contempt, scorn, …(etc. shall be punished) for each offense by a fixed fine of not less than $500 nor more than $10,000 or by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than ten years, or by both fine and imprisonment.
A point of interest here, is the Montana Sedition Act of 1918, was passed almost verbatim by the U.S. Congress, as The Federal Sedition Act “…which an embarrassed Congress repealed in 1921”.
No state in the Union engaged in quite the same orgy of book burning, inquisitions of suspected traitors, and general hysteria. Hundreds of suspects were hauled before Montana’s Councils of Defense to answer charges based on the rankest kind of rumor. County Councils of Defense were equally guilty of persecution; the courts jailed hundreds of “suspects” on the flimsiest of hearsay evidence; the press threw reportorial and editorial integrity to the winds and literally tried and convicted innocent Montanans in its pages. Liberty Committees were organized in practically all the small towns in the state and became the local arbiters of patriotism.
The persons found guilty under the Montana law were given a full pardon by a law passed by the 2005 Montana Legislature. An in-depth discussion of this issue has been written by Clemens P. Work, titled Darkest before Dawn, in 2006.
Congress Woman Jeannette Rankin, acknowledged the receipt of two boxes of supplies from Granite County Woman’s Patriotic Association, for the local boys in the military who are no longer at Camp Mills. Miss Rankin, will have the boxes repacked and shipped to the boys over seas. Also, the Woman’s Club was in need of the addresses of: Russell Carnes, Tom Basil, E.E. Meyers, Axel Eklund, Dragan Starcevich, and C. Zappa plus any enlisted men, since the first of the year, as they want to make sure they remember each and every one, according to the March 1, Mail.
Mrs. Kate Smith’s, second grade class purchased the following amounts of Thrift Saving Stamps; John Hauck $82.50, Mary Owen $2.25, Fred Lutz $.88, Alvin Fulkerson $7.50, George Metcalf $41.40, Margaret Henri $10.00, Mary Smith $2.50, Mary Cantero 50 cents, Cornelia Craddock 75 cents, Violet Krutar $1.25, Charles Roe 50 cents, Dorothy Storer 50 cents, for a total of $154.53 and this does not include their Liberty Bond purchases.
All citizens were now required to register their weapons. The new law was now in force and forms were available, at the Sheriff’s office. This included any gun, in your control, even if you did not own it. Falsifying data was a misdemeanor and failing to register carried a $50 to $500 fine and or ten days to six months in jail, or both. This law led to a registry that was in possession of the Sheriff of each county. This original log is owned by an antique dealer in Philipsburg and has every gun and most serial numbers of those guns that were owned by the entire populous of Granite County in the year 1918. A sad commentary on the Bill of Rights and our 2nd Amendment and how easily hysteria can take these constitutional rights away from every individual.
Next, headlines stated:
To Raise Two Regiments. The war department has enlisted the services of the United States Public Service Reserve to raise two special regiments for immediate overseas service. The regiments to be designated 36th and 469th Engineers. Men between the ages of twenty and forty years, if they have the proper qualifications are eligible to enroll for these regiments. Men not of draft age will be enlisted and those of draft age will be inducted into service up to the moment they receive orders to go to camp….If you have had experience as a railway bill clerk, railway statistical clerk, railway report clerk, railway file clerk, railway yard clerk, railway ticket agent, stenographer in a railway office, or as a cook, track supervisor, cooper, gearman, car inspector, or motive power clerk and you wish for immediate overseas service, go to the nearest United States Public Service Reserve enrollment agent and you will receive full information. The enrollment agents for Granite County are: Frank A. Davey, Garnet, Andrew J. Henry, Bearmouth, P.C. Aller, Drummond, Frank H. Morse, Hall, J.H.M. Florey, Maxville, Wm. B. Calhoun, Philipsburg.[vi]
Mrs. M.E. H. Gannon, as Granite County Chairwoman, of the Woman’s Liberty Loan Committee, was directed by the state chairwoman to set up committee’s in each town in the county, direct the banks to keep all men and women organization money separate, volunteer to assist the men’s organization and:
 impress upon your committees that they are enlisted for the war and that this is one of their chief patriotic duties and to collect as much money as possible in the next campaign that will kick off on April 6, the anniversary of the U.S. entering this war.
Of interest in the same issue of the March 15, Mail, was a letter published from Lyle F. Wilson.  The article did not explain why Mr. Wilson had journeyed to Washington D.C. In a previous issue the Valiton’s, had described his venture as buying stock. This visit described his activities such as spending time in the House and Senate and visiting with Miss Jeannette Rankin, Montana’s Congress Woman and spoke of three local service men.
Upon arriving in Washington I immediately wired Robert and Francis Perey, also Sid Grigg. After waiting a week for a reply I wired again, and that time received an answer from their respective camps saying they had been transferred. Shortly after I saw Sid’s name among those rescued from the Tuscania, but have been unable to locate Robert or Francis Perey. I saw an article in the Mail several weeks ago saying that John Butter was stationed at Annapolis and if I find time I am going down to see him…Miss Rankin is one of the best liked and most highly esteemed members of congress and is surely doing splendid work for our state---especially so in the work she has taken upon herself to inform all mothers in the state who have boys in the service as to their whereabouts and welfare.
An indication, the Sedition Act, was being enforced was the following:
Charles Hohrmann, a farm hand, was arrested Monday evening for making seditious remarks about U.S. Soldiers. A rope was placed about his neck and he was led up North Sansome Street, by a number of citizens, with several hundred people following, who expected to see him hanged. Sheriff Fred C. Burks took charge and placed him in the County Jail. He will be tried under the new Sedition Law, at the next term of court.
I found where his trial was to be set in the court docket, in June and then no more court notes were published in the Mail, until March of 1919, so I do not know what his sentence was.
Adjutant General Greenan announced the quotas for each county of the state on May 6, 1918, to be entrained for Camp Lewis the week of May 25. “Granite County must send twenty six men” and County Clerk Ballard identified them as follows: Jeremiah Millisich, Ernest Ecklund Switzler (unable to locate-Slacker), Edward Martin Poese, Augustus Charles Cole, Edward Waldbillig, John Buchanan, Conrad Satherberg, George Leroy Higley, Clifford Hall, Cecil V. Fessler, Ben Albert Swenson, Edmund James Smith, James Mazza Jr., William White (unable to locate-Slacker), Edward H. Kaiser, Edgar Louis Sprague, Alfred D. Colvin, Wm. Fields (unable to locate-Slacker, Matt E. Jarvi, John E. Bowers, Ralph L. Thomas, Lester H. Edgar, Parvin Ray Woods, George Henry Holland, Leo Burdett Shaughnessy, George R. Kennelly, Fred Miller (unable to locate- Slacker), Carl Billman, Christ Matheopolis and Arthur Fessler.
Noted in the May 24, edition of the Philipsburg Mail: Arthur and Cecil Fessler volunteered to serve in the veterinary branch of the U.S. Army. “They will leave next Wednesday for the training camp at Petersburg, Virginia”.
Another item of war interest in that edition was:
a prominent resident of Rock Creek this week paid five yearly subscriptions to the Philipsburg Mail and ordered the paper sent to five soldier boys from this county who are now on our mailing list. The gentleman remarked incidentally that he did not wish his name in the paper. But we did not promise to refrain from reporting to our readers his very generous act.
Also, announced in the news was the fact a former representative in the Montana Legislature, Major Neill McDonald, known to the locals as “Foghorn” McDonald, was now a Canadian veteran and had been sent over from Europe to New York to help in the Liberty Loan Drive, reported a Helena dispatch:
He raised $32,000.00 in less than five minutes at the Waldorf Astoria and you could hear his voice as far as Madison Square Gardens.
The article goes on to describe how McDonald ended up joining the Canadian Army after leaving Montana when the cobalt mining boom cooled and moved to Canada:
 and made quite a name and some money as a mining engineer. When the war came and half an hour after Canada opened the first recruiting station Foghorn breezed in and shouted he wanted to enlist.
“Can’t take you; you’re too old”, replied the officer.
“What’s your limit”, asked McDonald, who by the way was fifty three years old at the time.
“Forty”.
“Won’t be forty for six months yet”, blustered McDonald, and he was accepted as a private and two days later left with the first Canadian contingent of 1200 men for Salisbury Plains in England. 
The report continued on to state:
McDonald has made a marvelous record in the army, and had conferred upon him about every medal and decoration that King George and the Canadians have handed out since the war began. With his usual modesty, Foghorn said if it were not for the fact that he is known to be an American citizen, he would be a commanding General by now in the Canadian Army.
Frank D. “Sandbar” Brown was appointed the official Governors Representative, to visit Montana youth at the military training Camp Lewis and report back to Governor Stewart. Excerpts of the report written for the Philipsburg Mail published May 24, 1918 follows:
Conditions at Camp Lewis astounded me. I found there a vast multitude of perfect young men, physically and mentally the flower of the youth of the country. And I found them spontaneously patriotic and ambitious to serve the country. The very atmosphere of the camp breathed democracy. ..It is my candid belief that every high school and university should, as part of their curriculum, teach the young men in them to be proficient in the duties of a soldier. Not only will the students health and manly bearing be the primary elements of its development the most noticeable, but neatness, freedom from intemperate habits, courteous language, respectful demeanor, and an avoidance of the profane and vulgar, its equally as beneficial effects. I found a legion of youth, stalwart, alert, such as I have described at Camp Lewis. I found a common bond of interest existing between them and their officers. I found their quarters comfortable and home like, their food equal to that set in the best hotels in the state, their sanitation perfect, and clothes well fitting …The costly and magnificent building, the contribution of Andrew J. Davis, of Butte, now rapidly approaching completion, to be devoted to athletics, and other uses of the soldier, will but add to both (entertainment and physical and mental betterment)…The magnificent hospital with its numerous staff, has fewer beds occupied to the proportions of enlisted men under constant inspection than any other of the national encampments, so I am informed. Let the mothers, sisters and sweethearts visit their loved ones there, and the assurance is conveyed them every facility will be theirs to see much of them. At the Young Women’s Christian Association building, will be found every convenience a woman is accustomed to and brilliantly lighted. It maintains a large cafeteria, supplying excellent meals at a nominal cost to thousands daily, and an information bureau that will bring quickly the soldier wanted to the dear one’s awaiting him…They will find the slouchy, awkward boy that left them in tears, erect, graceful in his movements, and wearing his well-fitting uniform with the aplomb of a West Point graduate…signed Frank D. Brown Governor’s Visitor to Camp Lewis”. 
The heading of the article described “Mr. Brown, who is president of the Montana Society of Pioneers, enjoys an acquaintance with the fathers of more young men in Camp Lewis than any other Montanan”.
The May 31, 1918, Philipsburg Mail, announced Fort Keogh, was to be made into
one of two National Calvary Training Depots. The Fort is currently a remount station near Miles City where range horses are broken and sent to Eastern stations for finishing.
The article continued on to say several hundred bronco busters have been employed on the Fort Keogh reservation.
War Savings Day was announced as June 28 in the June 21, Philipsburg Mail:
 On June 28th every man woman and child in the United States will be called upon to pledge his or her full quota of War Savings Stamps purchase for 1918. You will be expected to pledge the full amount that you can afford--no more--but by the same token, no lessBusiness houses of Philipsburg will be closed to enable everyone to attend and make doubly sure that our quota is raised before the meeting adjourns.
The next reference I found regarding horse training, was in the June 28, edition of the Philipsburg Mail, with the headline, “Montana Cowboys training horses for the army at Camp Lewis: let her buck”.
The article described the actions at the remount as one continuous Wild West show. Stating that:
The muster rolls of the companies of busters read like a program of one of Guy Wedick’s stampedes, and all the old champions are there, except Fanny Sperry, who is barred from being a horse soldier by reason of her sex, but who could do the work as well as any man in the service. Tom Three Persons, the Canadian half-breed champion of the world is there, riding better than he has ever ridden before in his life, and among the other busters are many who won fame at Calgary, Pendleton, Cheyenne, Missoula, Billings and Havre in the Wild West shows and rodeos. 
The life of the horse is described in the following:
…Here the horses that go to supply the thousands of cavalrymen who are called into the service are trained for the hard duties that are before them on Flanders’ Fields. Immediately after the arrival of the horse at the remount station, he is inoculated against glanders. After that nothing but a German bullet can stop him. As the life of the average horse in action at the front is only 21 fighting days, it will be seen that our equine friends are doing their part in the war. And in the great struggle he serves two purposes. Alive, he smells the battle from afar off, like the war horses of old Israel, and rides into the thick of the fray with his head up and snorting defiance. Dead, if death comes to him quickly from shrapnel or rifle bullet, and the salvage butchers of the French commissary department get to his quivering carcass in time to make good meat of what is left, he goes into the pot and cheers and sustains our allies of beloved France.
The articles description of cowboys attempting to be foot soldiers is very colorful:
Most of the cowboys came into Camp Lewis in the draft and were transferred to the remount depot after having done some training service in the infantry. They couldn’t all be transferred immediately, of course, and those obliged to drill afoot for a time were in a hard way….You see, a cowboy is not built for purposes of pedestrianism. Years of riding get his legs properly squeegeed to fit the curves of the horses back; but the slant is wrong for walking. During the unfortunate moments of his life when it is necessary for him to walk, he teeters around precariously in boots with heels high enough to satisfy a broadway flapper on parade. The result is that in his maturity, while he has more legs and feet than a whale, they’re not much more use to him if you peel him away from a horse and call upon him to circulate around on his own. So a cowboy in the infantry has this in common with a fish in the Sahara desert: he’s manifestly out of place…They drilled around in flat heels for a few days, and the first free hour they got they stampeded for the remount and begged Captain Jackson for transfer to the remount depot. “Cap’n, I’d rather be shot at sunrise than walk on these feet o’ mine another day” one temporarily dismounted unfortunate declared tearfully. “If I knowed they’d shoot me for sitting, I’d do something to deserve it; but I’m afraid they’d make me stand up; and it’s too much for my brain to think of, standing on my feet and getting shot at the same time. They gimme shoes ‘thout no heels to ‘em, that set a man back on his spine so’s every time you step your back bone rattles like a box full of dice, an’ then they make me walk. That’s all. Just walk. Not goin’ no place. Just walkin’! Cap’n. there ain’t any place as far away as I’ve walked this week. No, sir. I walked my legs off clean down to the knees, an’ I’m working on the thigh bones now. I’m willing to die for my country, captain, but I jus’ naturally can’t walk for it. Please, you get me transferred up here where I can pour myself into a saddle and be human again!
The foreman of the remount was Captain Jackson, from Williston, North Dakota. He owned a ranch on the Montana North Dakota border and being a patriotic old cowboy, offered his services to the army the day after the war was declared. Being one of the best cowboys of the west he was well suited for the job. The article ended with this appropriate tribute:
The cowboy is working hard for the army, but he is busy at the work he understands and is happy in it. And when a fieldpiece goes rumbling by in the         clatterous wake of a sturdy well-trained line of obedient horses, you know that the work of the American cowboy has counted.
Quotas were called for June 25, of twenty two men: twenty for regular army and two for special services for the following men: Ezra Ernest Culwell, Charles Jesse Rau, Arthur A. Taylor, William O. Schultz, Bert Mitchell, Charles Burke (Slacker), Thomas Howard Purtle, Richard Emmett Hoehne, Fritz Erickson, Howard P. Bright, Arthur Durand, Thomas Malcolm Hughes, Ora Grover Gould, Lyle Higley, Walter E. Olson, Erick Herman Hillstrom, George M. Weaver, John Clifford Dollarhide, Duncan McLeod  (Slacker), Edwin Lucius Prader, George Johnston, Virgil Davis, Edward S. Mullen, John Steele (Slacker), and Fred William Scherr.
The two men who volunteered for special services would be sent to Montana State College at Bozeman, to train as mechanics, the other twenty were to report to Camp Lewis, according to the June 14, 1918, Mail.
Also announced in the June 14, issue, was a War Savings meeting to be held in every school house, in the county on June 28, at two p.m., to secure pledges for War Saving Stamps. The county was expected to subscribe for and purchase stamps in the maturity value of $59,825.00. The apportionment in the school districts in Granite County were as follows: Philipsburg District No.1-$26,000.00, Granite No.2-$500.00, Quigley No.3-$ 100.00, Trout No.4-$ 1,500.00, East Fork No.5-$ 500.00, Princeton No.6-$ 100.00, Stone No.7-$ 2,500.00, Hall No. 8-$ 5,000.00, New Chicago No. 10-$2,000.00, Drummond No. 11-$ 6,000.00, Bearmouth No. 12-$ 500.00, Hoover No. 13-$ 300.00, Valley No. 14-$500.00, (unreadable) No. 16-$500.00, Bonita No. 17-$100.00, Upper Rock Creek No. 18-$500.00, Lower Rock Creek No. 19-$1,500.00, Harvey Creek No. 20-$500.00, Spring Creek No. 21-$750.00, Cow Creek No. 23-$500.00, Sugar Loaf Mountain No. 24-$500.00, Maxville No. 25-$100.00.
The article continued on that:
In Granite County there are 561 registrants; each adult person will receive a card bearing the President’s message which is sent out by the mailing committee…Pledge cards will be given out to every adult at the meetings and they are expected to go the limit…It is possible that the committee will have all business houses closed at the hour appointed for the meetings, to permit all persons to attend and make their subscriptions.
Another reminder to the public that June 28, was War Savings day was published on June 21, 1918:
You will be expected to pledge the full amount that you can afford--no more--but by the same token, no less…Unless you have already bought War Savings stamps to the $1,000.00 limit, get busy with paper and pencil and figure out the utmost you can do. Remember this: You take no chances when you go the limit on War Savings stamps. They are the best and safest investment in the world. They pay you 4% interest compounded quarterly. They can’t go below par. You can get back every dollar you put into War Savings stamps any time you need it. You can turn them in at the post office any time for their full value plus interest. Uncle Sam is asking hundreds of thousands of men to give their lives to their country. He is asking you only to lend your money.
In the same issue of the Mail was the headline:
Granite Boys Left Today…Last night the men assembled at the court house and were presented with comfort kits by the local Red Cross chapter. A monster parade then started from the court house, proceeding to Broadway, west to Duffy Street, and then to the Firemen’s Hall where the evening was spent dancing.
The entrained were the men listed above plus John Blacker. Also Ralph McFarland and Reuben Bays, asked the board for immediate induction. They had been on the July 22 draft list.
The next quota called was also listed in the June 28, Philipsburg Mail. They were to report to Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa. The names were as follow: Cecil Earl Donaldson, Alex J. McDonald, Elmer E. Way, Milton Herbert Goldsby, Steven F. Milanak, Earl Thompson, Percy Lawrence Brydon, Duncan A. Fraser, John Parrett (Slacker), John N. Mihalen, James Mazza, Peter Zarwoodes (Slacker), Herman Lawrence Hauck, William S. Meyers, John Joseph Hughes, Adolph Moberg, Henry C. Lykins, Leo H. McClellan, Jesse C. Graham, Edward C. Gooden, Francis Winninghoff, Loyd T. Allen, John Henry Teters, Steve Petrunia and Earl Raymond Burt.
The above issue of the newspaper listed a statement of the work done by Drummond A.R.C., since it organized in November 1917 as:
One hundred ninety nine pairs of socks, ninety six sweaters, ninety six hospital bed shirts, sixty suits of pajamas, ninety six hospital bed sheets, twenty four pairs ward slippers, eighteen pairs of wristlets, fourteen bandage bed socks, fifteen comfort pillows, fourteen water bottle covers, and two scarves.
The article continued on to state the yarn and materials were purchased from funds raised by the Drummond branch and:
one hundred fifty dollars worth of yarn is now on hand and an additional one hundred pounds has been ordered at $2.50 per pound, all of which will be used in the big sock drive which ends September 1”.
The July 5, Philipsburg Mail, described a farewell party given the week before for Charles Rau, of Willow Creek. The affair was given at the home of his future brother-in-law, Walter J. Erickson and was attended by friends from Rock Creek, Willow Creek, Hall and Philipsburg. Among those present were: Misses Anna Saunders, Mary Luthje, Anna Luthje, Margaret Luthje, Veta Day, Anna Rau (sister), Kate Boch and Martha Broderick. The married couples present were: Mr. and Mrs.: James Huber, W.H. Fisher, R.C. Sluthers, Lawrence Maloney, Tom Day, Ned Ham (Charles’ sister Lilly), Lloyd Day, William Bentz (his half brother), Wm. Werning, William Mason, Robert Rau (his brother), S. Skinner, ? Qualley, Hans Luthje, Walter Getz; Mesdames: Day, Hull, Royal, and Messrs: Baker, Pete Mungas, Rufus Fazen, Smith, Arthur Schultz, Henry Hull, Saunders, Rodney Erickson, Charles Rau, and Pete Erickson. The excellent music was provided by the Day Orchestra.
The story goes that during this party a disagreement occurred between two young men over the affection of one of the young ladies and they ended outside where a very bloody fist fight settled the disagreement.[vii]
Also in the July 5, issue of the Mail was the following notice:
Commencing July 1, 1918, it will be unlawful for a jobber, wholesaler, retailer, broker, manufacturer, and operator of a public eating house to sell or purchase sugar except to private consumers with out the exchange of sugar certificates issued by the food administration. This departure from the usual voluntary methods has been considered imperative in the face of serious shortage of beet and cane crops in this country and the lack of shipping facilities from Cuba and Hawaii.
The same issue, notified people they should lay in their supply of winter coal now, because if they wait they are taking their chances of not having a supply for winter and Wm. B. Calhoun, announced a meeting that night for all interested persons, to discuss co-operation among all industries to address the food, farm and labor problems currently being experienced.
Patriots that they were, Granite County, again took their Thrift Saving Stamp campaign over the top. Nearly $50,000 was raised by Granite County with Philipsburg’s $26,000, being slow to raise but now assured.
Another front page item was:
Notice-All registrants who were married since May 18, 1917, with children born or unborn, will be required to immediately furnish to the local board a Physician certificate, otherwise they will be reclassified in class one. Local Board of Granite County, Philipsburg, Montana.
Figures compiled by State Adjutant General Greenan showed that old Montana had sent about 31,000 men to war, the quota by counties being: Beaverhead 550, Bighorn 341, Blaine 710, Broadwater 188, Butte City 2,443, Carbon 619, Carter 348, Cascade 1,970, Choteau 1,026, Custer 1,201, Dawson 1,292, Deer Lodge 758, Fallon 318, Fergus 1,841, Flathead 750, Gallatin 712, Granite 585, Hill 1,172, Jefferson 227, Lewis and Clark 789, Lincoln 229, Madison 344, Musselshell 619, Meagher 209, Mineral 106, Missoula 989, Park 627, Powell 258, Phillips 981, Prairie 270, Ravalli 350, Richland 574, Rosebud 761, Sanders 293, Sheridan 1,279, Silver Bow 773, Stillwater 292, Sweet Grass 334, Teton 817, Toole 335, Valley 1,076, Wheatland 285, Wibaux 139, Yellowstone 1,148.
In addition, about 1,500 men of whom no record had been kept were believed to have volunteered into various armies.
The quota and dollars subscribed for the current War Stamps drive were published, and showed Philipsburg $2,465 over their quota; Granite $1,435 over; Quigley $310 over; East Fork $95 short; Princeton $115 over; Stone $1,440 short; Hall $435 short; New Chicago $25 short; Drummond $2290 short; Bearmouth $170 over; Hoover’s quota was $300 and they had subscribed $0; Valley $245 over; Garnet $2,500 over; Bonita $430 over; Upper Rock Creek $515 over; Lower Rock creek $580 over; Harvey Creek $100 short; Spring Creek $485 over; Cow Creek $255 over; Sugar Loaf Mt. $395 over; Maxville $155 over. The reasons given for some cities short fall was blamed on the impression that they were at quota so they slacked up on the drive stated the article in the July 12, Mail.
The total subscribed was $57,290 versus the quota of $50, 450. The persons in the “limit class” before the drive were Mrs. Susie McDonald, Thomas Collins, Frank Wilson, and Mrs. Nettie Wilson. Persons who purchased the limit in this drive were: Dr. W.E. Casey, Mrs. W.E. Casey, Earl B. Patten, Lyle Wilson, John Mullen, Lawrence Donlon, and E. A. Hannah of Philipsburg and Mrs. Cora McRae of Hall.
Another article of interest in the July 12, issue of the Mail was the notice that French railroads were unable to handle the loads of packages being sent to the military and therefore suggested that friends and families would be “doing a greater service to soldiers by sending them money for the purchase of articles in France than by forwarding the articles”.  An investigation had disclosed that upon opening 5,000 parcels post packages the bulk of the articles being sent were unnecessary and undesirable and that the amount being shipped had reached 500,000 pounds a week and continued to increase.
Silver exportation was again a topic of interest as discussed in the July 12, Mail:
Sixty four million silver dollars have been melted into bullion by the U.S. Treasury, most of which has been exported to India. Fifty eight million dollars in silver certificates have been withdrawn from circulations and destroyed as the silver on which they were secured has been melted down. The Treasury still holds $426,000,000 silver dollars, against which $390,000,000 in silver certificates are outstanding. New Federal Reserve Bank notes of the denomination of $1 and $2 are being issued to replace the silver certificates withdrawn.
The next week was another heart sinking report that:
 Twenty four of Granite County’s young men will report to the local draft board Monday July 22, and entrain the next morning for Camp Dodge. The original list…is changed in that Percy Lawrence Brydon is released because he is a Canadian…James Huddleston is added to the list to make up the required number…Preparations are being made to entrain the young men Monday. The program calls for a presentation of comfort kits at the court house by the ladies of the Red Cross, a patriotic parade and a dance in the evening.
Also in the July 19, issue of the Mail, was a letter received by Mrs. John Hickey from her brother Ed Barker, a Corporal serving in the Expeditionary Forces in France.
Dear Folks; I suppose that by this time you have received the word announcing my safe arrival in France. We were _____ (censored) days in crossing the Atlantic…It was not until the second day before we reached the French harbor that we men were in any great danger from submarines. On the morning of this day we were made to realize the increased danger by the action of the ships crew in swinging the life boats clear of the deck for immediate use and by their vigilance in watching the sea. At no time during the voyage however did I feel any great fear…Our boat arrived in the French port in the evening and was anchored there until the following morning. I can never describe to you the thrill which I felt (and I am sure every person on board was more or less moved) when first the shors came into view…
The July 26, 1918, Philipsburg Mail, described
…a happy bunch of young men that gathered on the court house lawn Monday evening to receive their comfort kits given to them by the Red Cross and to listen to the address made by Judge D. M. Durfee”.
Twenty six men left on the train on Tuesday morning after enjoying a parade with 200 people and twenty five autos, to the Fire Hall, where they danced the evening away Monday. The list of men entrained included those called in the June 28, Mail, minus the two slackers. Forest Nowak, from Kansas City and Ertie Herring, from Anaconda were transferred to the Granite County contingent and Carl Axel Ekdahl was added.
Included in the above issue of the Mail, was this headline: “New order numbers issued
The list of young men of Granite County in class one now totaled fifty six. This was made up of thirty seven boys who registered June 5, as having become of age since that date last year and nineteen young men who had been given deferred classification, but who were reclassified, into class one. Those reclassified would be drawn on to fill the next draft quota and this list would be exhausted, before the class of 1918, was drawn upon. Those reclassified and their numbers appeared in the order in which they would be called: 52. James Patten, 83. Harry P. Hanifen, 107.Norman Thoreson, 153. James Drake Richardson, 166. Thomas Irvin Calcord, 204. William Silas Hanley, 261. John Schuh 331. Fidalias Matthews Fischer, 346. Hugo Milton Lindgren, 352. Albert O’Brian 361. James W. Young, 400. Robert E. Rau, 412. Edward L. McMahan, 448. Andrew C. Katchur, 458. R.T. Pritchard, 503. James D. Slocum, and 562. Patrick Sharkey.

The headline “Names of volunteers wanted” disclosed that no list existed of all the men who had volunteered and the Labor Committee of the State Council of Defense had asked the county council in Granite County to secure the names of all volunteers as well as the names and addresses of their immediate relative. Relatives and friends of the boys who volunteered from this county were asked to send in the names of these soldiers and sailors at once, including the names and addresses of the nearest relative. These should be mailed at once to N.J. Mershon chairman of the Granite County Council of Defense”.
August 2, 1918, front page news was full of war items, including, letters from the boy, with the statement:
Although some of the letters received by the Mail from our soldier boys in France are a month or six weeks old, they never less are mighty interesting and their many friends are glad to see them in print.
The following letters were from Joe Porter:
The Philipsburg Mail: Please convey to the people of Philipsburg and in fact all the people of Granite County for the many needed presents I have received from them during the time I have been in service in France. The Easter gifts were especially appreciated.
The Mail has followed me on three different sectors of the western front, but manages to find me quite regularly and I assure you that it is just like a letter from the home folks. Again I want to thank the people of Granite County for their many kindnesses. Joe Porter.
Dear Mother: Just a line to let you know that I am fine and dandy and hope you are all well. The weather is fine now and I sure hope we won’t have to put in another winter here, but no one can tell what we have to do. We have lost quite a few men lately from wounds, but have only had three killed in our company. Our captain was gassed and he sure is a loss as he was the best we ever had. There is a chance that he will recover. I am sorry you can’t send anymore of those good cookies, but I will make up for it when I get home. I am sending you a piece of boche airplane that was brought down very close to the front line; also a piece of a boche shell that whizzed by my head. They call these pieces graveyard butterflies over here. Say hello to all for me.”
(Ed. note) The piece of airplane cloth and shell are displayed in Doe’s Drugstore window.
Another column in the Mail stated:
The local draft board has received orders to furnish two men as the next quota for this county and Fred C. Splitt of Philipsburg and James Walter Clawson of Hall will leave next Wednesday, August 7, for Camp Fremont, California. Montana will furnish 300 men in this draft of which Granite (County) furnishes two. This call is necessary in order to make up the required quota of the state which is 300 short because some of the men being disqualified for physical and other reasons.
Then the headlines at the top of the next column are:
25,000 women wanted. The government is calling for 25,000 young women to join the United States Student Nurse Reserve and hold themselves in readiness to train for service as nurses. The war is creating an unprecedented demand for trained nurses. Only those who have taken the full training course are eligible for services with our troops overseas. These nurses are being drawn largely from our hospitals at home. Their places must be filled by student nurses enrolled for the full training course of from two to three years. Every young woman who enrolls in the United States Nurse Reserve is releasing a nurse for service at the front and swelling the home army which we must rely on to act as our second line hospital defense. Upon the health of the American people will depend the spirit of our fighting forces. The drive is on now. It is being conducted between the dates of July 29 and August 11. The army and country faces a shortage of nurses and those who wish to enlist should do so at once. Mrs. E. Ross, local recruiting officer.
The article immediately below, stated:
 Work or Fight. County Director W. B. Calhoun is making every effort to secure work for men who want employment and also to see that everyone takes a hand in seeing to it that every man either works or fights. In other words Mr. Calhoun says: If you know of any idle men around who refuse to work report them to the sheriff. If you know of any men seeking employment or if any men come to town seeking employment send them to me and I will place them on some farm. The crops must be harvested. Securing sufficient farm labor is one of the big problems now confronting the Government. Your earnest co-operation in solving the problem is urgently solicited.
The article below this stated the next draft call is expected any day and goes on to describe the call will be at least as large as the last one of 25 and possibly larger. It also explained the army quota through August 31 of class ones from the 1917 and 1918 classes must be filled, before any of the men could be released for duty as a Marine or to the emergency fleet.
August 9, 1918, brought the following news: Draft ages were now 18 to 45. Stating there was an urgent recommendation from Provost Marshal General Crowder that it be enacted without delay, and a suggestion that September 5 next be fixed as registration day for approximately 13,000,000 men throughout the country, the administration’s man-power bill requiring the registration for military service of all men between the ages of eighteen and forty five had been introduced Monday in the Senate and House.
Soldier addresses were again requested by N.J. Mershon, Chairman of the Granite County Council of Defense, and a letter from Fred C. Schmeltz to The Senator Mershon and his wife discussed how much he would like to be sharing in a bacon and egg breakfast at their home again. Also stated that in his company were many men from Montana, including Anaconda, Butte and Billings, but none from Philipsburg.
Another letter received by Leo K. Holmes, from Walter Kaiser, at the front line trenches stated the following:
Dear Leo: Hello old man. How are you? I received your letter about a week ago and the box of cigars last night. Just which I appreciated the most is hard to tell; but believe me, they were both mighty welcome. Merely saying thank you for the cigars is putting it rather lightly, but I hope to be able to tell you before too long just how much satisfaction my pals and I derived from them…My company has not been up to the front, yet, but expect to be doing M. P. duty in Berlin before the year is out…when some of those that have been up (to the front) and return to tell of their experiences one is willing to take a chance and see for himself…Write soon and tell all that is going on for even the small news is more than welcome. Your friend Walter.
Noted was a letter from Herman Hauck, now at Camp Dodge, Iowa, who stated the weather was hot. Alex Ehdahl and Melton Goldsby were rejected by physical examination, but probably would be retained. Ertie Herring and Herman were made Corporals and each had charge of eight men. Herman stated there was a good probability that he would be in France within the next two weeks if he passed an examination, for a special call for over seas duty.  
Headlined in the August 16, 1918, Philipsburg Mail was the agonizing news of the first casualty from Granite County, Thomas Parfitt.
He was taking part in the big allied offensive and probably was wounded shortly after it started. For his loss and the many other lives that must be sacrificed before war is over so much stronger will be the determination to exact every atom of justice from the inhuman wretches who jeopardized the freedom of the world. Surviving the young man are his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Parfitt and three sisters, Mrs. Virgil Dowell, Edna, and Edith and two brothers Harry and John. To the parents and members of the family of the young man who has given his life for the cause on foreign soil the deepest sympathy of the entire community is given.
Tom was twenty five years old and a member of the first contingent to leave Deer Lodge County, being in France, since the first of the year, where he had fought in many battles.
Arthur Crowley, in training at the Naval Base at Mare Island ( near Vallejo, California), was married to Miss Maud Edna Manhart, stated an article sent to the Philipsburg Mail, by a shipmate of Arthur’s and published August 16. Mr. Crowley would be leaving the naval base, sometime in September, for over seas duty.
Twenty one men would be called in the August draft. The following were to leave for Camp Lewis shortly after August 26: James Patten, Norman Thorson, Thomas Irvin Colcord, William Silas Hanley, John Schuh, Fidalias Matthews Fischer, Albert O’Brien, James W. Young, Robert Rau, Edward L. McMahan, Andrew C. Katchur, Albert Knoch, R.T. Pritchard, William H. Hoeg, Conrad Satherberg, Charles Burks, Henry C. Lykins, James Bays, Urgo Linciani, and Gus Lund.
Included in this issue of the Mail, was the notice Francis L. Perey was injured July 18, while involved in the massive offensive by the allies. The degree of wounds was not yet determined according to the telegram received by his mother Mrs. E. L. Perey. Francis’s name was the first to appear officially, in the casualty list from the war department stating that had enlisted from Granite County. He enlisted in June 1917, and landed in France on February of 1918, where he transferred to the Eighth Co. Fifth Marine Regiment. 
Another column of interest, of the week was the War Stamp Total detailing:
Complete results of the War Savings Pledge Drive which ended June 28 in Montana was announced Saturday by State Director Harry W. Turner as follows: War savings stamps owned and pledged: Pledged maturity value-$10,082,153, State quota maturity value-$ 9,459,740, State over its quota -$633,413"
The above expressed in maturity value represented the amount Montana had invested in War Savings Stamps and the amount it had pledged it would invest during the remaining five months of the year.
…Granite County’s quota was $59,825 and the amount of stamps bought and pledged up to June 28 was $86,232, was an over subscription of $26,707. The number of pledges obtained in the June drive was 1,141.
M.E. Doe, local enrolling agent, for the United States Shipping Board, received notice that the age for men entering the Merchant Marines, had changed and they would now accept youths from ages eighteen to twenty for training on ships as sailors, cooks, and stewards. Men between the ages of thirty two and thirty five inclusive would also be accepted. Prior to this the age limits were the same as the draft ages--Here after the shipping board would accept men of draft age only for firemen. Firemen who have fired six months would be given special training as oilers and water tenders.
Also of interest for the week was a notice to all the sock knitters:
Headquarters of the A.R.C. are asking for smaller socks. They have sent the local chapter directions to be followed in the future and anyone following these directions who finds that the sock measures more than four inches across the foot and leg are longer than fourteen inches in the leg will cast on fewer stitches and knit the leg only ten and one half inches before starting the heel. This lack of uniformity in knitting is no one’s fault. It arises from the differences in holding the yarn and casting on stitches. When everybody thoroughly understands the new instructions no further difficulty will be had.
Bringing home the realities of war was a letter from Vincent Winninghoff, written while in the trenches, received by his family and published in the August 30, 1918 Philipsburg Mail.
The other morning they had quite a time around here and the Americans did fine work making the Germans more than pay for our losses which were very light, although a number of fellows were slightly wounded. In one place the Germans crept up real close with a liquid fire apparatus. The Americans heard a noise and just then the Germans shot the fire, but there was no one where they shot. This fire revealed the Boche and the Americans made short work of them, capturing a lieutenant and the apparatus, besides killing a couple and wounding more. The losses the Americans sustained did them more good than harm. It seemed to raise their moral 100 per cent and make them determined to get the Boche…We have lots of companions in the trenches. We have Frenchmen like in the picture. We talk with them and try to learn French and they try to learn English. Then there are the rats. If the allies had as many soldiers in the trenches as there are rats this war would soon be over. One ran up on the end of my gun while I was standing guard, and when you are sleeping rats play hide and seek on you as the little fellows did in the English story about Gulliver. And last but not least are the gray backs. Thousands of them! One sees fellows with their shirts off playing hunt the lice every day. At night while standing guard we hate the rats worse, for then while straining our ears to catch the slightest sound a rat will start running around on No-Man’s Land scaring us because we think it is a Boche.
Sometimes as the day is breaking there won’t be a noise: even the boom and crack of gun is absent, then the birds will start singing. How beautiful it is one cannot imagine. And it is hard to realize that war exists. It really seems to me as if there are more birds on No-Man’s Land than any place else on earth…I am writing this in a dugout by candle light, and in a very poor position to write. Your Loving Son, Vince”
A notice was posted that it had come to the attention of authorities, in the county there were men who were not engaged in the Work or Fight order of Provost Marshall General Crowder, and if they did not immediately become engaged, they would be cited to appear before the Council of Defense.
Of great interest was the second Granite County boy had been injured in battle. Mr. and Mrs. John W. Duffy received a letter Monday stating their son Ed, was in a Paris hospital, but that his wounds were nothing to worry about. He was struck by a bullet in the face, “the missle coming out just behind the ear”. The assumption was made that he had probably been wounded, the end of July.
A letter was published from John T. Mellon, sent to his father D. H. Mellon. He had recently seen Will Waite, of Hall and Gus Pearson, also from Hall. He was somewhere in France and alive and well.
In the same August 23, issue was an article stating the price of silver had been virtually fixed, at the maximum price of $1.01 ½ per fine ounce and that export license for silver would be granted by the Federal Reserve Board only for essential civil or military purposes and on condition that the maximum price was not exceeded by the purchaser. Within the last three months the government had melted down about 100,000,000 silver dollars and exported most of this to India, China, and Japan for coinage purposes. Since the law under which this is done specified that the government should pay $1.00 per ounce for silver to replace these melted dollars, the government found it necessary to sell its own stocks at 1 ½ cents above the purchase price. Recently some purchasers had been bidding as much as $1.02 for silver to be exported, necessitating action to stabilize the price.
Headlined in the same issue was:
IMPORTANT NOTICE. All male persons who have reached their twenty first birthday since June 5, 1910 and on or before August 24, 1918, must register on August 24, 1918. The only registration place in the county is at the courthouse. It is problematic how many will register in the county, but over 900 will respond to the call in the state.
On the front page of the Mail in the same issue, was a column that stated Granite County was second in War Saving Stamps (W.S.S.). Twelve counties were 100 percent or better of their pro-rata quota. In the order of their standing they were: Meagher 211 percent, Granite 147 percent, Deer Lodge 136 percent, Jefferson 131 percent, Missoula 126 percent, Beaverhead 116 percent, Silver Bow 115 percent, Lincoln 111 percent, Ravalli 110 percent, Powell 109 percent, Wibaux 109 percent, and Gallatin 103 percent.
The article went on to explain that due to many counties being behind in their pro-rata quota’s, Montana had to raise approximately nine thousand dollars a month for the next five months to meet the December 31, quota.
Again, Philipsburg turned out in full force to send off another contingent of young men on Tuesday, August 27.  Sixteen on the original list were entrained from Granite County. Charles Burks was supposed to be entrained at Tacoma, but no one had heard from him. He was classed as a slacker in an earlier group. Added to the Granite group was Wm Freeman, of Anaconda and Arthur Parent, of Helena and those entrained elsewhere were: Ray Pritchard at Spokane; Ugo Linciani at Tacoma; Henry Lykens at St. Joe, Missouri and Albert Katchur at Ely, Nevada.
The following names were in the August 27 call: James Patten, Norman Thorson, Thomas Irvin Colcord, William Silas Hanley, John Schuh, Fidalias Matthew Fischer, Albert O’Brian, Robert E. Rau, Edward L. McMahan, Andrew C. Katchur, Albert Knoch, R.T. Pritchard, William H. Hoeg, Alfred Bourbonnais, Conrad Satherberg, Charlie Burks, Henry O. Lykins, James Bays, Ugo Linciana, and Gus Lund, according to the August 30, Mail.
I do not believe Robert Rau ever served in the War. He married Ruth Erickson, on July 30, 1917, and she would have been pregnant by the time his call came up, so this probably gave him a deferment. Their son Robert Raymond was born May 4, 1919.
There would be eleven more young men leaving for Camp Lewis on Friday September 6.  Rodney Erickson should have been on this list, but was putting up crops, so was deferred. Charles Poisl would be his replacement. The others on the list were: Edward A. Hanifen, Lyle Frank Wilson, Robert Louis Runyon, Leslie Lawrence Like, Antone Deschamps, Gordon Angus McDonald, Charles C. Burch, William Carl Franzman, Kenneth D. Hoeg, Leslie Myron Gage.
Eleven more young men had registered in the prior week. The board hoped to obtain at least nine men from this registration. Those registered were: John Laine, Roso Soholic, Arthur Olson, John Robbins, Ivan Carlson, Elisha Rule, George Winninghoff, Frank E. Nowak, Thomas LeRoy Jones, and Thomas Roberts.
Included in this week’s Mail, was a letter, from Lloyd Terrill. He talked about digging trenches to hide and sleep in and stated they had lost only ten men in his company and his company was in “the thick of the last big drive that the German’s made for Paris”.
The fourth Liberty Loan campaign would commence on about September 28 and it was necessary that each individual in the county carry his reapportionment of the burden, which was getting heavier as the war continued and to devise the means whereby this can be brought about. From the figures on hand, it was found that in many cases those least able to do so had been the most generous with their money. The article went on to say:
It is not our purpose to work a hardship on any individual, but simply to see that every one in the county does his proportionate share. Signed T. N. Brogan Chairman.
The September 6, 1918 Philipsburg Mail, brought the sad news that Michael Duffy, son of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Duffy was killed in action Sunday, August 4, 1918.
Michael Duffy was one of the first contingents to leave Montana for Camp Lewis. He registered in Butte and left with the Silver Bow boys. In December he was in England where he had Christmas dinner and soon after the first of the year was seeing active service on the western front. Mike as he was better known to his friends was born in Philipsburg March 13, 1895 and was twenty three years of age on his last birthday. He is one of five boys, Edward was recently wounded, and is recovering in a Paris hospital; John and Joe of this city and Thomas of Butte and leaves four sisters, Mrs. Albert Knochs, Nellie, Nora and Margaret…His letters home were always cheerful and gloom-dispelling and we know that when his Maker called on him to make the highest sacrifice within the gift of mankind that he did not falter or make the least complaint. It was his nature and character and the memory of this young hero will ever remain fresh in the minds of the present generation and for those to follow. The last letter received by his folks was written July 8, when he wrote that he had been in the trenches for seventeen days, during which time they had experienced some hard fighting. His company was expected to be relieved any day for a much needed rest. He was with the first bunch of Americans to be subjected to gas schrapnels, which were concentrated on them for two continuous hours…He was somewhat of a fatalist as he told his mother before leaving that if he went to France that he did not expect to return home alive.
The last contingent called out for August was listed and left the depot, the morning the issue was published, with a good crowd sending them off after a parade and dance the night before. The contingent was comprised of: Edward A. Hanifen, Lyle Frank Wilson, Robert Louis Runyon, Leslie Lawrence Like, Antone DesChamps, Gordon Angus McDonald, Charles C. Burch, William Carl Franzman, Leslie Myron Gage, and Charles Washington Poisl.
Montana registration was expected to be at 117,703 at the new September 12, registration and was noted as an aside, in the September 6, issue, of the Philipsburg Mail.
On September 13, an article stated Francis Perey was recovering after “touring French and English hospitals and now transferred to an American one”.  His biggest treat was the yanks chow.  He went on to state “My foot is getting along fine so will not be long ‘til I’m fit again.
Francis recovered, returned to battle and spent seven months in the Army of Occupation at Remagan, the American Bridgehead on the Rhine in Germany. He then returned to Philipsburg, married Margaret Burks and in 1931 moved his wife and son Francis Jr. and daughter Edwina to California. Francis died at the age of eighty in California on September 23, 1974. Survivors were his wife, children Francis Jr. and Mrs. Edwina Salmon of California, two grandchildren, brother, Emile, of Billings and cousins from the Kaiser, Conley and Saurer families.[viii]
The sad news continued in the September 20, issue of the Mail: “Two boys are missing”. William Waite, son of Mr. and Mrs. William Waite was missing after an action in France on July 18. He was sent to France in January. Mark Bubalo was listed as missing and John Kovich was listed as his next of kin. No further information was noted. I did not find any other articles about Waite or Bubalo, so assume they returned from the war alive.
The sixteen men listed for the new draft call in the September 27, issue of the Mail were: Thomas Roberts, Theodore Sauer, Frank E. Nowa, John Robbins, Ivan Carlson, Elisha Rule, John Laine, Roy Greenheck, Rodney Ludwig Erickson, Verdon Dean Leggett, James Daniels Mitchell, Fred George Max, Claude Cahoon, Pat Sharkey and William H. McKenzie. They would leave October 9, for Camp Lewis.
Headlined in the October 4, 1918, Philipsburg Mail was the notice that Granite County exceeded its allotment the first day of the fourth bond drive. In a very business-like manner and without making a big demonstration Granite County had over-subscribed its allotment of $130,000 on September 28, the day set aside for the inaugurating of the Fourth Liberty loan drive. It was almost certain that those localities where a total crop failure was had this year would be unable to raise their quota and the over-subscription would take care of these areas. The method used by the Liberty loan committee in apportioning to each person the amount of money he or she should subscribe was fair to all and placed the burden on those who could well afford to lend some of their money to their government. In the past Liberty loan drives it was a well known fact that those people who could least afford it were the most liberal with their savings and some of those who were financially able did not subscribe for even a baby bond.
This is our war and you are going to participate in one way or another whether you want to or not. Come on!
The next column of the Mail, announced a marriage that occurred six months ago (March 27) between Raymond Kerlauezo, of Philipsburg and Miss Josephine Stafford, of Anaconda. Judge F.D. Sayrs had performed the ceremony. The Montana Standard, reported the groom had just returned on a 10 day furlough, to take his bride back to California with him, as he was in the U.S. Navy, stationed at the Mare Island training camp, as an instructor. They were returning to Anaconda to make their home when the war ended.
Below the marriage announcement, was an article, that due to an epidemic of Spanish influenza in training camps the Mail, received a telegram on September 27, stating that the local board was to cancel the draft call for sixteen men for October, but the three men originally ordered to depart on October 4, for Jefferson Barracks, Mo., had left that morning, as scheduled. They were: Peter Wisner, Nick Sanchelli, and Harry Baker, all from Drummond.
Monday (September 30), was the date the 13,000,000 men who had registered, on September 12, began their drawing for lottery numbers. The number of men to be selected for service had been estimated at 2,600,000 but all of those would not be affected immediately, since the department had determined to call first men between nineteen and thirty seven. Men between thirty seven and forty five would next be called, but there had been no indication when that would be. The first number drawn in Granite County was that of Walter Gannon. He was now in Helena attending a military school.
A letter received by Mr. and Mrs. H. P. Hanifen, from their eldest son was also published in this issue of the Mail:
Dear Mother: Just a few lines to let you know that I am still on earth and feeling fine and dandy. I don’t wonder that you have not been getting any mail from me as I have not had the time to write during the last three months during which time we have been in the trenches continuously.
Well at last I have been over the top. I was in one of the first engagements of the big counter drive you read about in the papers and it sure was fun. You could see the Huns going in all directions. The worst and hardest part of going over the top is just before going over, but after the big guns start you think of nothing else but getting a Boche and we sure got lots of them. They’d sooner see the devil before them than a U.S. soldier.
If we can figure it out from the way the Germans talk the war can’t last much longer. They are sure a sad looking bunch and it seems almost a shame to kill them, but a German is a German and if you don’t get them they get you. You can’t trust one at all.
I have sent you some German money I took off a Boche in the big drive and I want you to be sure and keep it for me as I prize it above everything.
I try to write you once a week and twice when possible to get paper and also when I have time. When you write be sure to enclose a sheet or two of writing paper.
I suppose you will see by my signature that I am now a non-com. Love to all. The signature looks to be Dan, but is not clear. Edward was shipped out September 6 and Harry was listed as number eighty three in the July 26, 1918 Mail. So it appears the family had at least three boys serving in the war.
This poem, There’s a Gold Star in the Window, was published October 4, 1918:
There’s a gold star in the window
That a story tells to me
Of a brave lad who has fallen
In the cause of Liberty
It portrays both strong and true
One has made that sacrifice
Such as only Patriots do.
There’s a gold star in the window,
Made by mother’s quaking hands;
She, her all, through him has given
Meeting thus the stern demands.
Yet today throughout the Nation
There are those that give no aid;
Not a thrift stamp have they purchased
Nor a bond e’en yet have paid.
There’s a gold star in the window,
May that gold star all inspire
To support and lend assistance
And of such to never tire.
May it rouse that latent feeling
“To my home I will be true”
May it stir to tireless action
Everyone to up and do. No author identified.
The October 11, issue of the Philipsburg Mail, contained a letter from George Holland (son of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Holland of Drummond) sent to special deputy sheriff Harry Holland. George went into the service in March and was already seeing action. He was sent to England and then on to France and hoped to be able to visit relatives before returning home:
after we have finished the Huns…Smithy of Hall and Ed Waldbillig are still here and we are all anxious to get into the thick of the big fight and will probably be mixed up in it by the time you get this letter…I was pretty sick for the first four days on the ocean, but after that enjoyed every minute of the trip. We saw a small iceberg one morning.
Notice was published that all public places were closed after twenty five cases of Spanish influenza. Dr. W.I. Powers naming this an epidemic had issued orders that all public places be closed until further notice. The schools were closed October 10th as was the McDonald Theater and the order also affected the churches.
Mixed in with the influenza epidemic and fear of fallen soldiers was the headline “Pioneer of Pioneers dead” in the October 11 Mail, describing the death of Granville Stuart. He died suddenly at his home in Missoula October 3. Stuart a very early pioneer of Montana and was eighty seven years of age. He and his brother James were credited with discovering the first gold in the area in 1857, in what at that time was Idaho Territory. Until a year ago he had resided on the homestead near Hall. With him at the time of death was his second wife (Allis Isabelle Brown) and niece Mrs. Eringle.
On the home front young people began dying of pneumonia and many reportedly had the Spanish influenza from reports in the October 18, 1918, Philipsburg Mail. Dead from pneumonia was C. Dormet, who had arrived in Philipsburg, from Utah a month before to work in the mill. Two Mormon Elders, from the lower valley officiated at his funeral.
His wife and two small children had arrived from Utah the day he took ill and are now returning to Utah.  
William Graham of Drummond was rushed to the Missoula hospital, on the evening of the October 17, but died in route. Also, Leland Lacey, who came to Philipsburg, from Hayden Lake, Idaho, about a month ago, became ill a short time ago and died October 17. The ages of these three young men were not given.
Mrs. John Hickey (Effie May), also succumbed to pneumonia on October 14, after an illness of a weeks duration, which began as the Spanish influenza. She was twenty three years old; born in Stevensville and married John Hickey on March 18, 1917; gave birth to a son January 8, 1918, who lived one day; and besides her husband was survived by her parents Mr. and Mrs. R. N. Baker, three sisters and three brothers. One brother J.E. was in France; Charles was in the Seattle shipyards, and Paul lived in Stevensville.
The Mail goes on to state:
More than 100 cases of the dreaded Spanish influenza has been reported to the Philipsburg Health Officer, (Dr.) W.I. Power since the disease first made it’s appearance and he has issued orders to close all places of meetings, including the schools, churches, and even the public phone exchange…The influenza has already claimed two victims here and it is absolutely necessary that every one take all due caution and use all preventative measures to eradicate this menace to the community.
Another letter was published from Vince Winninghoff.
Somewhere in France, September 4, 1918; Dear Father; Just another short note but active hitch at the front. But it was quite different from the hitches before in that we had a different kind of foe to face. Here the German infantry did not put up much of a fight. Every chance they got they threw up their hands and hollered “Kamerad”. They said their officers went to the rear before the attacks, otherwise they would have been shot if they showed a white flag. But the artillery fire at times was a fright. The Germans threw over shells that would dig a hole big enough to bury several horses in.
Prisoners we took told us that they had taken off their equipment before to give up, when tanks were attacking, but the artillery drove the tanks back so they had to put their equipment back on so the officers wouldn’t catch them with it off and shoot them.
The German soldiers seem to have come to realize that the Kaiser cannot win the war and he has lost all ambition to fight. This I believe is true with the exception of the artillery and some of the machine gun men. The latter will often stand at their posts pumping lead into you until you reach them, then they will throw up their arms and holler, “Kamerad, Kamerad”, but they are shown little mercy. This is something to much for anyone to stand, but those who give up decently are treated as men should be.
Sometimes they are made to carry a litter on their way back, but that is the worst punishment I have seen any of them receive.
I can’t help but speak well of some Boche Red Cross men who stayed out all one day and tended to our wounded when our own Red Cross couldn’t come. I don’t know what has come over the German unless he is trying to cover up his past sins, seeing as he can’t win the war.
This time in I saw my first areoplanes brought down. The first one came down in flames. It was an Allied plane and was flying over our lines. I don’t know what struck it, but all of a sudden a tongue of flame darted out behind her. The aviator started toward the German lines then he turned and started to come down. Our ante-aircraft hit a wing and tore it off. The German came straight down. His machine kept spinning this killing the momentum and he came down fairly slow. However I guess he was killed. Well father, I’ll bid goodbye; Your loving son Vince.
Discussing the scarcity of funding was this article stating the time for Americans to make excuses and withhold their assistance from the government has passed. “ If you are an American, real one hundred percent, you are helping the government. If you are  not in the army or navy or helping at home, you are not fulfilling your duty as an American citizen.”
President Wilson says--this is a war of nations not armies. That the nation as a whole, that is all the people of all the states, territories and possessions must be trained and included in this war. Another authority says, the war will be over when America gets into the war with every ounce of its financial strength and its man power. The President further says--Our problem is not primarily one of finances, but is rather of production of war essentials, and the saving of material and labor for the production of the necessary arms, ammunition, medicine, clothes, and food for our army and navy.
The statistics of the pledge drive for W.S.S. show that there was only about one-fifth of Montana’s population that heeded the President’s appeal and became participants in the world war by investing in war savings stamps. This one-fifth of the population is helping to finance the war as well as releasing labor and material to be used in the manufacture of war essentials.
The first “Roll of Honor” was published on October 18, 1918, with the following listed: Honored Dead: Private Thomas Parfitt, and Private Michael Duffy; Missing in Action: Private William Waite and Private Marco Bubalo; Wounded in Action: Frances Perey, Ed Duffy and Joe Bellm.           
“A matter of vital importance” headlined the article describing local conditions in reference to the influenza epidemic as extremely serious. The physicians were taxed to the utmost to answer an unusual number of calls for their service and because a dearth of experienced nurses and similar aid it was absolutely necessary that each person co-operate with them in stamping out this disease as rapidly as possible. Strict orders had been given by the Board of Health that congregating for any purpose whatever must stop and the anti-spitting ordinance would be enforced to the letter. Gauze masks were being supplied by the Red Cross chapter and those person’s whose occupation exposed them to influenza were instructed to avail themselves of this article of prevention.
The next article of interest was that person’s sending packages to soldiers over seas must wait for the serviceman to send them a label. No packages can be mailed without this label attached, was news the on November 1, 1918.
The Roll of Honor added this week: Wounded in Action: Austin J. Gates and Thomas Purtle.
The influenza epidemic was continuing and claimed the life of Harry Parfitt Jr., a thirty four year old married man with a ten month old son. The Parfitt family had seen their share of grief in the recent past, as brother Tom, was the first casualty of the war. Bob Wrightson, died the day of the Mail, publication and the funeral would be planned when word was received from his sister in Salt Lake. The first death in the lower valley from influenza claimed the life of Leslie Bates, of Hall, while being treated in the Missoula hospital. Malcolm McLean died of influenza, in Butte, after moving there from Philipsburg, a short time ago. Services were held in Butte and the body was returned to Philipsburg, for interment in the Philipsburg cemetery. Miles John, infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Williams, also succumbed to the influenza at the age of two and one half months, October 31 and was buried on November 2, in the Philipsburg cemetery.
The local Red Cross was making gauze masks for people trying to protect themselves from the deadly influenza. The masks were being used by clerks in the stores and in all of the sick rooms around town. To obtain a mask people were instructed to call the Red Cross or Mrs. M.C. Ross.
 In the ongoing matter of politics, Newell J. Mershon, who had been serving the un-expired term    of late Senator A.R. Dearborn, asked to be elected to that seat.
November 8, 1918, brought the dreaded news, of another young man injured and a second killed in action. A letter from Corporal Wingfield L. Brown, received by his parents was published, that described the horrors of War, when he was injured, in the September drive, against the Huns.
France, October 5, 1918; Dear Mother and Dad: I have had enough experiences and seen enough actual warfare in the last two weeks to last me the rest of my days and I’ll warrant more than an ordinary family formerly saw in four or five generations. And I am glad that I can relieve you all at home of considerable anxiety as to my whereabouts for some little time, as I know you have worried constantly ever since I have been in Europe and especially the last two months. Have been in the neighborhood of actual hostilities for a long time. That is hiding from the Bosh artillery and aeroplanes, and moving always at night and at times when the timber was dense enough in the day time. A short while ago we went over the top and for four or five days and nights were in hand to hand conflict with the Huns. Peppered day and night, and always with artillery, machine guns, and automatic rifles. Bombed and shot at by aeroplanes. I’ll tell you mother, if your prayers were ever answered and I ever benefitted (sic) by them it was then. I had a number of close shaves, and was fast convincing myself that my life was charmed when I picked up with a machine gun bullet.
This was my fourth day and the Dutch were making a stand. The fire was mighty hot and it seemed impossible for anyone to stand up under it or advance and yet we did; and how is a mystery to me. The sight was shot off my gun and the barrel broken about two p.m. and I started to move to the right for machine gun assistance for our company. Went about 100 yards when I came into one of the boys shot in the left leg, helpless and under fire, and while throwing up a few breast works for him for protection was shot through the left breast.
The bullet passed clear through, made a clean wound and has caused me very little pain. Everyone has told me it was a miraculous escape and I am of the same opinion. Have been dressed and attended to by the best doctors the U.S. government has as they are performing wonderful operations here every day, and have so far recovered as to be able to get out of bed now; but am not at all adverse to taking things easy for a while.
Thought I would write the glad tidings myself in order that you wouldn’t become alarmed if you saw mention of the fact in the papers. Will write again in a few days and till then, love to all the family.
The next tragedy was the death notice of Dr. Ernest Beal, received on November 7, 1918, from the Adjutant General to Mrs. Madge Stevens Beal, his wife. He had served as a private, in the Medical Detachment of the 364th Infantry and was killed in action, on September 26, in France. The Mail, published the following article on November 8, from the Anaconda Standard, November 1, 1918, and published a picture of the handsome young man, on November 15, 1918:
Ernest Beal was one of the best known of Anaconda’s young men, held in highest regard for the sterling qualities that had marked his life during his boyhood and young manhood here, and promised professional success in his chosen career.
He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey L. Beal, pioneer residents of the valley and the city. He was born December 7, 1895 at the ranch home of his father on Modesty Creek, in the Deer Lodge valley. The family moved to the city when he was a child, and he was educated in the public schools here, graduating from high school and going to Denver University to continue his studies in the dental department, where his brother Lieut. W. L. Beal, now at Camp Lewis had preceded him. He graduated from the professional school in June 1917, and located at Philipsburg in the practice of his profession. He had been active in athletics, both in the high school and university, and was coach of the Granite County High School during the season he was located here.
In June 1917, just before graduation he registered at Denver for the selective service draft, his    card being transferred to Deer Lodge County. He left here for Camp Lewis with the contingent of May 29, and was attached to the medical department, leaving soon for overseas. He landed in France July 18. His last letter to his wife was dated September 24, and was hastily written on a half sheet of paper as the detachment was moving to the front, where he made the supreme sacrifice two days later.
Dr. Beal was married last January to Miss Madge Stevens, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Stevens, pioneer residents of the city (Anaconda). Besides his wife and parents he is survived by six brothers and two sisters--Lieut. W. L. Beal, now at camp Lewis, Paul, Harry, Fred, Charles, and Louis Beal, and Rose and Pearl Beal, all at the family home in Anaconda.
The news of his death came as a shock to all who had known him and had realized with pleasure the bright future that seemed in store for him.
The editor of the Mail went on to state that Ernest had a most promising career in Philipsburg and made friends rapidly and was well thought of and popular. During his residence in Philipsburg it would be considered by all that this was his home and Granite County would count him among its honored dead.
John Hickey received a letter from Ed Barker, his brother -in-law and it was published in the Mail.
Dear brother; You have read of our onrush in pursuit of the fleeing enemy in the ______Sector.  It was in this offensive that I got my first introduction to real warfare. When I sat at a table with two Polish officers near the Notre dame in Paris on the morning of July 15th and heard the explosion of a shell from one of those giant German guns over sixty five miles away. (This was the first shells that the Germans had hurled into Paris for over six weeks). I little dreamed that it was intended by the enemy as a prelude to the greatest offensive of the war an offensive that was to place him in possession of the metropolis of France. Of the crushing of this offensive and the turning of it into a great retreat and defeat, the papers have told you weeks ago.
Ed goes on to describe in great details different aspects of the battles and how he had been very fortunate to escape harm.
In another article in this issue of the Mail, was the notice this was the week for the United War Work Campaign to put Granite County over the top. Stating a circular letter was mailed to nearly every person in the county and a strict account is being kept of the subscribers. The committee will call on those who have failed to contribute voluntarily and get their subscription. Seven organizations with just one aim to serve the fighting boys of yours--to be with him from the time he leaves home till he gets back--to back him up and to buck him up, to do for him things that you would do if you were there.
The article also stated over $1,000 had already been subscribed in the first two days and that the miner's contribution will come in after the fifteenth, and was expected to swell the contributions considerably.


Endnotes



World War 1
[1]  Montana Historical Society Research Library, Archives, RC#223, Box 16.
[ii]  ibid, September 28, 1917.
[iii]  ibid, November 2, 1917.
[iv]  ibid, December 21, 1917.
[v]  ibid, February 28, 1918.
[vi]  ibid, March 8, 1918.
[vii]  Bohrnsen, Edward, 2006.
[viii]  Philipsburg Mail, October 3, 1974.

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